Biomes are technically defined as the world's major communities, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by the adaptation of living beings to the particular environment. They keep shifting according to changes in climate and due to human activities. The major biomes on our earth include the arctic tundra, coniferous forests, deciduous forests, desert, grasslands, mountains, rainforests, and marine biomes.
Eight Biomes Of The World
A Biome is an ecosystem where different species of plants, animals, insects, birds and humans live and adapt themselves to the climatic conditions.
A Biome Is An Ecosystem Where Plants, Animals, Insect, Birds, And Humans Coexist And Adapt To The Climatic Conditions
Eight Major Biomes Of The World
Most of us have read about the tundra region, the tropical rain forests, grasslands, oceans, mountains, as being the basic elements of our earth's topography. They not only carry geographical significance but have an ecological system of their own, wherein the flora and fauna have developed specialized features to survive the climatic conditions, and all forms of life coexist maintaining a balance. Any change, whether an increase or decrease in any species, creates ripples that affect the entire ecosystem. Major biomes of the world include the following:
- Arctic tundra: This is a vast cold treeless area of low swampy plains in the far north, around the Arctic circle. It includes parts of Lapland, Scandinavia, Siberia, Alaska, and Canada, as well as most of Greenland. This is the Earth's coldest biome. Here the sun does not rise for nearly half of the year, and temperature usually remains many degrees below the freezing point. The earth of the arctic tundra has a permanently frozen subsoil, called permafrost, which makes it impossible for trees to grow.
- Coniferous forest: This biome lies south of the tundra region, stretching from Alaska straight across North America and Eurasia. These forests consist mainly cone-bearing trees such as Spruce, Hemlock, and Fir, supplying the bulk of world's commercial softwood timber, that is used to make paper.
- Deciduous forest: This includes major regions of eastern North America, Europe and Eastern Asia. Oak, ash, maple and beech trees are commonly found, along with wildflowers and berries. These trees loose their leaves in fall.
- Desert: Scientists estimate that deserts occupy about one-fifths of earth's land surface. The scanty rainfall, lack of underground water sources, and intense heat or cold make this biome inhospitable for most lifeforms. Most of the plants found here are various species of cactus.
- Grasslands: Better known as the Prairies in the US, Veld in South Africa, Savannas in South America, and Steppes in Eurasia, they are places with hot dry climates that are perfect for growing food.
- Mountains: They exist in all continents of the earth. They are usually found in groups called chains or ranges. A mountain biome is cold and windy, with a lack of oxygen at high elevations. The animals found here such as the mountain goat, puma and yak are excellent climbers and have adapted to the harsh climatic conditions.
- Rainforests: Almost half of the world's tropical rainforests are found in Brazil. They recieve at least 70 inches of rain every year. The hot and humid climate of these forests, often found along the equator, makes it possible for millions of plant and animal species to thrive.
- Marine biomes: These cover about three-fourths of the earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs and estuaries. The blue-green algae found in abundance, supply much of the world's oxygen and take in a huge amount of carbon dioxide.