The history of the fabulous bean begins with a 9th century Ethiopian goat herder named Kaldi! States wikipedia encyclopedia. It claims Kaldi, discovered the bean after noticing that his goats upon eating berries from a certain tree became so spirited that they did not go to sleep- kinda like us after drinking coffee. Kaldi reported this to the local monastery- who discovered that the it kept him from sleep for hours. However, the earliest evidence of coffee drinkers appears in the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen, and by the 16th century coffee consumption had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.The word quickly spread east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, and began it's long journey which would spread across the globe. Today coffee is grown in a multitude of countries around the world. From the goats of Ethiopia to Starbucks! You certainly have come a long way beanie!
Did you know?
According to recent research, coffee can remove from tap water “78 to 90 per cent of dissolved heavy metals, such as lead and copper, because the coffee grounds, with uncharged or negatively charged molecules, attract the positively charged heavy metals,” reports the Australian newspaper. “The stronger the coffee, the better the removal,” said environmental chemist Dr. Mike McLaughlin. Similar experiments were conducted with tea bags, but while tea takes out about a third of the lead, it did not seem to have much effect on copper.
Ulcers and Coffee
Ulcer patients may not find decaffeinated coffee any more soothing than regular coffee. This was indicated in a study undertaken by the University of Pennsylvania. Both types of coffee were shown to increase the secretion of stomach acid. However, the secretion was lower when caffeine was given alone in amounts equaling that present in regular coffee. This suggested that an unknown coffee ingredient may account for the higher levels of stomach acid in persons who have ulcers.
What About Caffeine?
A single serving of espresso may contain less caffeine than a cup of regular coffee. Does that surprise you? How can it be, given the intense concentration of espresso?
One factor is the darkness of the roast. Darker roasts contain less caffeine. Also, many specialty coffee shops use arabica coffee beans, which contain significantly less caffeine than the robusta beans used in many of the canned supermarket coffees.
But the biggest factor is volume. While espresso contains more caffeine per ounce than regular coffee, there is simply less liquid per cup. Thus, some studies show that a six-ounce cup of regular coffee may contain 100 or more milligrams of caffeine, whereas a single shot of espresso may contain somewhat less.
Nevertheless, results from studies vary, and the amount of caffeine will depend on the beans used as well as every step in the brewing process. Of course, a double espresso will contain more caffeine than a single. Your best guide in determining the level of caffeine is probably the way you feel after the drink. If you wish to decrease caffeine intake and still enjoy espresso, you can use a decaffeinated espresso roast or blend it with a regular espresso roast, according to the percentage of caffeine you desire.
Are you ready to brew espresso in your own kitchen? You will need experience to produce crema and foaming milk. Your perseverance, however, will pay off when you delight your friends with espresso drinks that rival those in your local coffee shop. You may even come to agree that espresso is the very essence of coffee.
Instructions for Foaming Milk
To foam and/or steam milk for cappuccinos and lattes, you will need a steel pitcher, cold milk, and a milk steamer. If your espresso maker does not include a wand for milk steaming, you can purchase a stand-alone device for this purpose.
1. Fill a steel pitcher no more than halfway with cold milk.
2. Place the steam wand just under the surface of the milk, and open the steam valve.
3. Keep the tip of the wand barely under the surface, lowering the pitcher and incorporating more air as you foam.
4. The ideal temperature is usually reached when the pitcher becomes too hot to touch.
5. Close the steam valve, and remove the pitcher from under it. Then open the steam valve to clear any remaining milk, and wipe it with a damp cloth.
* Update on World production:
Wikipedia reports quote; " In 2010 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam, Indonesia and Colombia. Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.
Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona" unquote.