Diabetes Mellitus

by Michael_Koger

Diabetes mellitus is a well-known illness in which there is a disturbance of the human body’s blood sugar.

There is much in the literature about this illness over the decades. Historical documents suggest that it was present during the 16th century. It is also evident that these clients have borderline values of blood sugar whereas others have extraordinarily high levels of it which can lead to a life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention from the medical community. Another serious situation that can arise is elevation of blood sugar during pregnancy which may precede various complications. However, some of these women will experience resolution of the problem after delivery of the baby (1, 2).

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

     The differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a lot to do with the management approach of these patients.  Despite the seriousness of type 1, clinicians must carefully evaluate their clients in order to detect problems which may arise.  Some of the clinical signs and symptoms include weight loss, thirst, hunger, and excessive urination.  There may be ketones in the urine.  Blurring of the vision, irritability, and fatigue may take place.  Those who develop skin sores seem not to heal well.  This may result in a variety of infectious illnesses (1, 2).

     The presence of this serious infirmity varies with clients; however, it is well-known that type 2 individuals are often at least 40 years of age.  Nevertheless, this does not prevent it from taking place at any time of life.  In any event, type 1 commonly becomes an issue during childhood or adolescence.  It too may arise unexpectedly.  Scientists do not know the cause of type 1 diabetes (1, 2).

     Many people also know that the human pancreas interacts with blood sugar and insulin.  For example, there are interactions between viruses, glycogen, and bacteria in the liver.  Also well-known are genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.  These matters lead to risk factors such as immune system cells or autoantibodies.  Family history has roles in these processes.  There are also geographic influences, hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome.  Also, one must not omit gestational diabetes mellitus (1, 2).

     As with most illnesses, there are several racial/ethnic groups, age, and family predisposition.  The levels of blood lipids can interfere with these substances.  Additionally, diabetes mellitus can affect vision, kidney function, and skin which may occur as foot ulcers or other dermatologic lesions.  For these reasons, it is important that everyone eat the proper foods and exercise regularly whenever it is within the confines of physician recommendations (1, 2).

Health Care Expenses

     Doctors also know that the cost of health care has been a concern for decades.  Hirsch and Gaudiani discuss some of these matters.  There are concerns about oral antidiabetic medication and injectable insulin.  Some clients are “socioeconomically underserved.”  It involves individuals who receive a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and initiation of therapy must begin immediately.  In many instances, it is better that the patient use a less expensive agent than a drug which will lead to costly management.  In other words, prompt initiation of medical care will likely result in less metabolic risk (1, 2).


     In conclusion, there are important guidelines available for the management of this well-known disease.  Americans and other nationalities are wise when they follow guidelines of the American Diabetes Association.


  1. Mayo Clinic.  (2020).  Diabetes
  2. Hirsch, I. and Gaudiani, L.  (2020).  Using insulin to treat poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in 2020.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 323, 2419-2420.
  3. Copyright 2020.  Michael Koger, Sr., M.D. All rights reserved.


     The information contained in this article is for educational purposes only, and one should not use it for diagnosis or treatment without the opinion of a health professional. Any reader who is concerned about his or her health should contact their physician for advice.


Updated: 08/15/2020, Michael_Koger
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Michael_Koger on 08/15/2020

Thank you.

Veronica on 08/13/2020

This is really useful information here. Thank you. People should take note of it.

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