In 1673, Johann Brunner removed the pancreas of dogs, and he noticed that they had signs and symptoms which were similar to those of humans who had diabetes mellitus. Though some scientists were reluctant to accept this idea, the research paved the way for more investigation which eventually identified a hormone in the pancreas that kept the blood sugar in humans and animals under satisfactory control .
Dogs that had undergone pancreatectomy quickly became seriously ill and died .
The story of Banting and Best, two researchers who obtained permission to use the laboratory of Professor John Mcleod at the University of Toronto in 1921, has been well-known to many medical students. Best was previously one of Mcleod’s undergraduate students. The two scientists wanted to establish a connection between internal secretion of a hormone from the pancreas and regulation of blood sugar .
Ultimately, the three researchers presented their findings to the American Physiological Society at Yale University, and Banting and Mcleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their remarkable discovery .
During the 20th and 21st centuries, there have been developments in the use of insulin and oral agents to lower the blood sugar in diabetics. Dietary management has also progressed with the use of calorie counting and meal arrangement of certain food types for these clients. Laboratory assays to measure the serum glucose have dramatically improved, and individuals can test and monitor their blood sugar at home several times daily .