Deer Proof Garden: Perennials That Whitetails Naturally Avoid

by DerdriuMarriner

Planting perennials which are disagreeable to white-tailed deer is a successful, green strategy for deer-proof gardens.

Odocoileus virginianus, commonly known as whitetails, are graceful, majestic deer that are the bane of many a garden's existence.

Certain perennials which are disagreeable to whitetails serve as natural remedies for the problem of deer invaders in gardens.

A proviso is that seriously famished deer may adjust their diet to include plants which they normally reject in times of plenty. A starving deer considers everything in its path.

Seventeen deer-proof perennials, for a range of sunlight and shade conditions and temperature zones, are described:
•Michaelmas daisy (Aster novi-belgii),
•wolfsbane (Aconitum lycoctonum),
•blue dogbane (Amsonia tabernaemontana),
•gas plant (Dictamnus albus),
•lamb's ears (Stachys byzantina),
•gooseneck loosestrife (Lysimachia clethroides),
•'Excelsior Group' foxglove (Digitalis purpurea 'Excelsior Group'),
•'Bevan's Variety' bigroot geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum 'Bevan’s Variety'),
•spotted dead-nettle (Lamium maculatum),
•white baneberry (Actaea pachypoda),
•white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana),
•English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia),
•'Dutch Master' daffodil (Narcissus 'Dutch Master'),
•Deutschland false spiraea (Astilbe 'Deutschland'),
•red valerian (Centranthus ruber),
•green santolina (Santolina virens), and
•cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus).

Whitetail decoy: not a guarantee for scaring deer away from gardens

Hidden Lake Gardens, Tipton, southeastern Michigan
Hidden Lake Gardens, Tipton, southeastern Michigan

White-tailed deer: In and OUT of garden

 

The adorability of these limpid-eyed epitomes of grace unfortunately dissipates in the human-whitetail interaction which occurs as a result of habitat destruction and diminishing food sources. Rural and suburban development impels whitetails that normally are satisfied with woodland shelters and meadowy grazings to resort to garden and crop invasions. Many counter measures are available for discouraging whitetails especially from garden forages. These measures range from over 9-foot-high fences to chemical repellents.

The method which has been most successful for me -- as well as for countless others interested in the organic, natural path -- is to surround my treasured vegetables and ornamentals with plants that are deer-resistant. In other words, deer have a distaste for a variety of ornamentals and wildflowers, and only seriously famished whitetails even consider indulging in these undesirables. Even so, marigolds, despite their sunny beauty for humans and nectarous attraction for butterflies and hummingbirds, unequivocally repel whitetails.

Perennials (Latin: per, "through" + annus, "year") are plants which live for at least two years and encompass popular garden ornamentals. Not all perennials are desirable to whitetails. The below-listed perennials are effective in deer-proofing gardens. The simple strategy of surrounding vegetables and ornamentals with these plantings serves as an effective, natural deterrent.

In the rural-suburban area where I live, whitetails frequently visit edges, as, for example, between lawns, gardens, and meadows. My treasured plantings are never disturbed by whitetails. Vegetables and ornamentals are encircled by deer-resistant perennials. Additionally, at a respectable distance is an uncultivated area that is overgrown with grass, saplings and wildflowers. These appear to be all items whitetails love. My garden flourishes, and the meadow receives contented, undisturbed visitors.

 

small copper butterfly (Lycaena phlaeas), feasting on Michaelmas daisy (Aster novi-belgii)

Barrington Court, Somerset, southwestern England
Barrington Court, Somerset, southwestern England

Zone 2 to Zone 9 (-50 to 30 °F; -46 to -1 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Aster novi-belgii, commonly known as Michaelmas daisy or New York aster, reaches a height of 3 to 4 feet (0.9 to 1.2 meters) with a spread of 24 to 32 inches (60 to 80 centimeters).

Flowers, primarily white or shades of pink or purple, open in late summer or early autumn.

Although disfavored by whitetails, Michaelmas daisies are nectariferous magnets for butterflies, including painted ladies (Cynthia subgenus) and monarchs (Danaus plexippus).

In 2004 the Royal Horticultural Society honored a MIchaelmas daisy cultivar, Aster novi-belgii 'Fellowship,' with the prestigious Award of Garden Merit (AGM).

 

wolfsbane (Aconitum lycoctonum)

Kitee, North Karelia Region, southeastern Finland
Kitee, North Karelia Region, southeastern Finland

Zone 3 to Zone 9 (-40 to 30 °F; -40 to -1 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Aconitum lycoctonum, commonly known as badger's bane or wolfsbane, reaches a height of 5 to 7 feet (1.5 to 2 meters) with a spread of 2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters).

Flowers open as downy purple, white, or yellow in summer.

Aconitum lycoctonum also discourages rabbits as garden nibblers.

Caution should be exercised with wolfsbane. As an Aconite:

  • it may cause skin irritation from contact with its foliage;
  • it must not be ingested because all of its parts are highly toxic.

 

blue dogbane (Amsonia tabernaemontana)

Rutgers Gardens, Rutgers University-Cook Campus, Weston's Mill Pond, East Brunswick, central New Jersey
Rutgers Gardens, Rutgers University-Cook Campus, Weston's Mill Pond, East Brunswick, central New Jersey

Zone 3 to Zone 9 (-40 to 30 °F; -40 to -1 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Amsonia tabernaemontana, commonly known as blue dogbane or blue star, reaches a height of 36 inches (90 centimeters) with a spread of 36 to 48 inchees (90 to 120 centimeters).

Pale blue flowers open from mid-spring to late summer.

Caution should be exercised as contact with Amsonia's milky sap may cause skin irritations.

 

gas plant (Dictamnus albus)

Genoa, Liguria Region, northwest Italy
Genoa, Liguria Region, northwest Italy

Zone 3 to Zone 10 (-40 to 40 °F; - 40 to 4 °C): Full sun

 

Drought-tolerant Dictamnus albus, commonly known as dittany or gas plant, reaches a height of 16 to 36 inches (40 to 90 centimeters) with a spread of 20 to 24 inches (50 to 60 centimeters).

Spikes of white flowers open in summer.

In 1993 the Royal Horticultural Society recognized two varieties of gas plant, Dictamnus albus var. albus and Dictamnus albus var. purpureus, with Awards of Garden Merit (AGM).

Caution should be exercised as contact with Dictamnus foliage may provoke photodermatitis, in which sunlight activates allergens. Also, mild stomach upset may ensue from ingestion of Dictamnus foliage, roots, or seeds.

 

lamb's ears (Stachys byzantina)

Stachys lanata and Stachys olympica are scientific synonyms for this drought-tolerant plant.
Stachys lanata and Stachys olympica are scientific synonyms for this drought-tolerant plant.

Zone 4 to Zone 8 (-30 to 20 °F; -34 to -7 °C): Full sun

 

Stachys byzantina, commonly known as lambs' ears or woolly betony, reaches a height of 18 inches (45 centimeters) with a spread of 24 inches (60 centimeters).

Pink to purple flowers emerge from silvery grey-green foliage of this ground hugger in late spring to early summer.

Although distasteful to whitetails, Stachys byzantina is attractive to nectar seekers, especially the Hummingbird Moth (Macroglossum stellatarum), as well as a coterie of bees, birds, butterflies, and hummingbirds.

Although Stachys byzantina repels deer, it attracts slugs.

 

gooseneck loosestrife (Lysimachia clethroides)

Genus name Lysimachia honors use of loosestrife by Thracian King Lysimachus (c360 BC–281 BC) to quell mad bull.
Genus name Lysimachia honors use of loosestrife by Thracian King Lysimachus (c360 BC–281 BC) to quell mad bull.

Zone 4 to Zone 9 (-30 to 30 °F; -34 to -1 °C): Partial shade

 

Lysimachia clethroides, commonly known as gooseneck loosestrife, reaches a height of 40 inches (100 centimeters) with a spread of 24 inches (60 centimeters).

Nodding heads of small, white flowers open during the summer.

Lysimachia clethroides received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (AGM) in 1993.

 

'Excelsior Group' foxglove (Digitalis purpurea 'Excelsior Group')

'Excelsior Group' is appreciated for large trumpets with refined coloring.
'Excelsior Group' is appreciated for large trumpets with refined coloring.

Zone 4 to Zone 9 (-30 to 30 °F; -34 to -1 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Digitalis purpurea 'Excelsior Group,' commonly known as Excelsior Group foxglove, reaches a height of 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 meters) with a spread of 12 to 32 inches (30 to 80 centimeters).

A mixture of white and shades of pink or purple open in early summer.

Although distasteful to deer, Digitalis purpurea is attractive to such nectar lovers as Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris).

Digitalis purpurea 'Excelsior Group' was honored with an Award of Garden Merit (AGM) by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1993.

Caution should be exercised as:

  • contact with Digitalis foliage may cause skin irritations;
  • ingestion of any part of Digitalis plant may cause serious discomfort.

 

'Bevan's Variety' bigroot geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum 'Bevan’s Variety')

Vladimir Oblast, central Russia
Vladimir Oblast, central Russia

Zone 4 to Zone 9 (-30 to 30 °F; -34 to -1 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Geranium macrorrhizum 'Bevan's Variety,' commonly known as bigroot geranium, reaches a height of 20 inches (50 centimeters) with a spread of 40 inches (100 centimeters).

Bright magenta flowers open in early summer.

Geranium macrorrhizum is distasteful to slugs.

 

spotted dead-nettle (Lamium maculatum)

Choceň, Pardubice Region, central Czech Republic
Choceň, Pardubice Region, central Czech Republic

Zone 4 to Zone 10 (-30 to 40 °F; - 34 to 4 °C): Shade or partial shade

 

Lamium maculatum, commonly known as spotted dead-nettle, reaches a height of 6 to 20 inches (15 to 50 centimeters) with a spread of 24 to 60 inches (60 to 150 centimeters).

Pinkish red to purple or rare white flowers open dramatically against pointed, white-centered leaves in summer.

Spotted dead-nettle plants also are avoided by rabbits.

 

white baneberry (Actaea pachypoda)

Hacklebarney State Park, Morris County, New Jersey
Hacklebarney State Park, Morris County, New Jersey

Zone 5 to Zone 8 (-20 to 20 °F; -29 to -7 °C): Shade or partial shade

 

Actea pachypoda, commonly known as doll's eyes or white baneberry, reaches a height of 36 inches (90 centimeters) with a spread of 20 to 24 inches (50 to 60 centimeters).

White flowers open in late spring to early summer.

Globular white berries have a black spot on the apex, or blossom end. Ripening over summer, berries remain until overcome by frost.

Not only is white baneberry repugnant to whitetails, but it also is toxic in its entirety, including berries, to humans. Nevertheless, Actaea pachypoda attracts birds, such as ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), which enjoy the berries and are important in the plant's seed dispersal.

Actaea pachypoda received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit in 1993.

Caution should be exercised as ingestion of Actea's berries provokes high toxicity.

 

white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana)

Idaho National Labs, Bingham County, southeastern Idaho
Idaho National Labs, Bingham County, southeastern Idaho

Zone 5 to Zone 10 (-20 to 40 °F; - 29 to 4 °C): Full sun

Artemisia ludoviciana, commonly known as silver wormwood or western mugwort or white sage, is equiproportional with a height and a spread of around 36 inches (90 centimeters).

Tiny, grey-white flowers open in summer.

In 1993 the Royal Horticultural Society honored a white sage cultivar, Artemisia ludoviciana 'Valerie Finnis,' with an Award of Garden Merit (AGM).

 

English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany
Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany

Zone 5 to Zone 10 (-20 to 40 °F; - 29 to 4 °C): Full sun

 

Lavandula angustifolia, commonly known as English lavender, reaches a height of 2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters) with a spread of 4 feet (1.2 meters).

Deep purple spikes of flowers waft fragrantly in early summer.

Nine cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia have been honored by the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (AGM):

  • 'Beechwood Blue' in 2002,
  • 'Folgate' in 2012,
  • 'Hidcote' in 1993,
  • 'Imperial Gem' in 2002,
  • 'Ballad' [Little Lady] in 2012,
  • 'Clarmo' [Little Lottie] in 2002,
  • 'Miss Katherine' in 2002,
  • 'Scholmis' [Miss Muffet] in 2002, and
  • 'Nana Alba' in 2002.

 

'Dutch Master' daffodil (Narcissus 'Dutch Master')

Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, central Spain
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, central Spain

Zone 5 to Zone 10 (-20 to 40 °F; - 29 to 4 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Narcissus 'Dutch Master,' commonly known as Daffodil 'Dutch Master,' may reach a height of 12 to 18 inches (30 to 45 centimeters) with a spread of 12 inches (30 centimeters).

Sunshiny trumpet flowers have an overall bright yellow coloration. 'Dutch Master' flowers blossom in solitary or in umbels throughout midspring.

The golden yellow cultivar received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit in 1995.

Caution should be exercised as Narcissus bulbs and foliage contain lycorine, a compound of high  -- even fatal -- toxicity.

 

Deutschland false spiraea (Astilbe 'Deutschland')

Astilbe 'Deutschland' in Belgium
Astilbe 'Deutschland' in Belgium

Zone 6 to Zone 9 (-10 to 30 °F; -23 to -1 °C): Partial shade

 

Astilbe 'Deutschland,' commonly known as Deutschland false spiraea, reaches a height of 20 inches (50 centimeters).

Flowers open as white, lacy plumes, against glossy green foliage, in early summer.

'Deutschland' also is rabbit-resistant.

 

red valerian (Centranthus ruber)

A picturesque common name for Centranthus ruber is scarlet lightning.
A picturesque common name for Centranthus ruber is scarlet lightning.

Zone 6 to Zone 10 (-10 to 40 °F; - 23 to 4 °C): Full sun or partial shade

 

Centranthus ruber, commonly known as red valerian or Jupiter's beard or spur valerian, reaches a height of 32 to 40 inches (80 to 100 centimeters) with a spread of 16 to 27 inches (40 to 70 centimeters).

White or deep rose pink to red flowers fragrantly open in spring and early summer.

 

green santolina (Santolina virens)

University of British Columbia Botanical Garden
University of British Columbia Botanical Garden

Zone 7 to Zone 10 (0 to 40 °F; -18 to 4°C): Full sun

 

Santolina virens, commonly known as green lavender cotton or green santolina, reaches a height of 12 to 18 inches (30.48 to 45.72 centimeters) with an exuberant spread of 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5
meters).

Bright yellow button-like flowers open atop 6- to 10-inch (15.24 to 25.4 centimeters) stalks in mid-summer.

Another species, Santolina chamaecyparissus, commonly known as lavender cotton or cotton lavender or grey lavender cotton, also effectively disinvites whitetail visitors.

Lavender cotton reaches a height of 24 inches (60 centimeters) with a spread of 4 feet (1.2 meters).

Foliage, which may appear white on young leaves, is silvery grey.

Clusters of wide flowerheads open in a profusion of yellow in early summer.

Two cultivars of Santolina chamaecyparissus have been honored with the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (AGM):

  • 'Nana' in 1993, and
  • 'Pretty Carroll' in 2012.

 

cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus)

garden in France
garden in France

Deer-proof garden: beauty in the eye of the beholder

 

The natural method of discouraging whitetails from gardens causes the least harm to all concerned: garden, gardener, whitetails. Thus, it is the most environmentally friendly strategy. The benefit of dissuading whitetail visitors is enhanced by the beauty and oftentimes fragrance of deer-resistant perennials. Of course, whitetails are selecting plants according to personal taste, not according to beautiful flowers. Reasons for the repugnance of these perennials to whitetails are unknown, yet whitetails steadfastly avoid them and do not congregate in their vicinity.

The advantage which gardeners accrue in observing this natural, deer-proof method is spectacular visual amplification of an ornamental or vegetable garden. And gardeners derive justifiable pleasure from the sheer joy of beholding their floral handiwork.

Deer-proof gardening with deer-resistant perennials wins on all counts.

 

whitetails, Garner State Park, Texas Hill Country, central Texas

1972 photo by Mark St. Gil (1924-1992)/Environmental Protection Agency (US National Archives ID 412-DA- 3745)
1972 photo by Mark St. Gil (1924-1992)/Environmental Protection Agency (US National Archives ID 412-DA- 3745)

Acknowledgment

 

My special thanks to:

  • Talented artists and photographers/concerned organizations who make their fine images available on the Internet;
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for superior on-campus and on-line resources.

 

white-tailed buck, feeling comfortable in the neighborhood

"Deer hanging out by neighbor's garage"
"Deer hanging out by neighbor's garage"

Sources Consulted

 

"Actaea pachypoda." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=4362 

"Artemisia ludoviciana 'Valerie Finnis' AGM." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=2134

"Aster novi-belgii 'Fellowship' AGM." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=5374

"Astilbe 'Deutschland' (japonica hybrid)." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=5289

Brickell, Christopher, and Judith D. Zuk, eds. The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encylcopedia of Garden Plants. New York: DK Publishing, 1996.

"Centranthus ruber." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=364

Clausen, Ruth Rogers. 50 Beautiful Deer-Resistant Plants: The Prettiest Annuals, Perennials, Bulbs, and Shrubs That Deer Don't Eat. Portland OR: Timber Press, 2011.

"Dictamnus albus." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=4447

"Digitalis purpurea Excelsior Group (Suttons; Unwins) AGM." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=660

Flora: A Gardener’s Encyclopedia. Volumes I-II. Portland OR: Timber Press, 2003.

"Geranium macrorrhizum 'Bevan's Variety.'" Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=5444

"Lamium maculatum." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=1109

Lancaster, Roy. Perfect Plant Perfect Place. London-New York-Sydney-Moscow: Dorling Kindersley, 2002.

"Lysimachia clethroides AGM." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=1212

"Narcissus 'Dutch Master' (1) AGM." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=5221

"RHS AGM Listing May 2013 (Ornamentals)." Royal Horticultural Society > Plant Awards > List of plants with the AGM. May 2013. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/Plant-trials-and-awards/Plant-awards/AGM-plants

"Santolina chamaecyparissus." Royal Horticultural Society > Plants > Plant Selector. 2011. The Royal Horticultural Society. Web. www.rhs.org.uk

  • Available at: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=409

 

 

rendezvous with white-tailed doe

doe in Pennsylvania
doe in Pennsylvania
the end which is also the beginning
the end which is also the beginning

Full color photographs of every plant.

Photography by Alan L. Detrick.
50 Beautiful Deer-Resistant Plants

Bambi: world's most famous white-tailed deer, beautifully designed as Swarovksi crystal figurine.

Dimensions: 3 9/16" x 3 13/16" inches.
Swarovski Crystal Figurine #5004688, Bambi

Deer in Wildflowers: black t-shirt

Deer in Wildflowers
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Me and my purrfectly purrfect Maine coon kittycat, Augusta "Gusty" Sunshine

Gusty and I thank you for reading this article and hope that our product selection interests you; Gusty Gus receives favorite treats from my commissions.
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
Updated: 08/20/2014, DerdriuMarriner
 
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DerdriuMarriner on 01/21/2014

jptanabe, The deer may still hang around but they'll have to be quite determined or quite famished to invade gardens with barriers formed from these perennials.
With their olfactory sensitivity, they can detect a range of fragrances, so repugnant odors are intermingled with the agreeable aromas. It's the uncertainty of the bundle of scents which makes them hesitate and, usually, turn away.

jptanabe on 01/21/2014

Some great suggestions for keeping my yard looking good - and I'm sure the deer will still hang around!

DerdriuMarriner on 01/19/2014

Dustytoes, Such a treat to live next to a protected area in which deer in all likelihood feel safe and enjoy their food options. Sometimes, though, deer do seem to want to check out the neighborhood, to see what's growing on the other side of the fence.
Deer browse in the uncultivated area next to me. Fortunately they are satisfied with what nature offers them. But I also do have deer-proof perennials and shrubs, just in case.
Even though lamb's ears are often regarded as invasives, I've found them to be quite sensitive to their environment. The lamb's ears which sprouted on the north side of my east-facing porch do flower, but those which compete with a vast array of plants in the uncultivated area to the south of my house do not tend to flower.
Hopefully your lamb's ears will flower, for they really are lovely.

Mira on 01/19/2014

Right. That's a great point. Although if everybody did that, deer would probably get to eat those plants, too ;-)

DerdriuMarriner on 01/19/2014

Mira, Gardeners can get so frustrated with deer visitors in their gardens, and drastic measures end up being taken, such as chemicals and unsightly fencing.
It's nice to know that there's a gentler, greener solution to this issue. It's also an attractive solution.

dustytoes on 01/19/2014

You've added some fabulous photos of the plants deer will not eat. And I never knew that lambs ear got flowers - mine just grow close to the ground. Maybe they are not mature enough. Anyway, I live next to a protected area and the deer are abundant. I know they DO eat rhododendrons and love to chew the buds and leaves off all winter long.
Thanks for the info.

Mira on 01/18/2014

I really like this article. Such a great idea to use these plants to protect other flowers and vegetables.

DerdriuMarriner on 01/18/2014

Mira, Reams could probably be written about the etymology of foxglove. I thought about including a summary because it's so interesting and still puzzling, but I hadn't done that with any of the others, so I set the information aside with the idea of coverage in its own article.
Ethnobotany interests me, but I decided not to include the "medicine cabinet" profiles because of the focus on selecting plants which deter deer from gardens.
Your appreciation of and interest in plants are obvious. Nature is a joy to behold and to study.

Mira on 01/18/2014

I love your photos of plants. I learn new things about plants I know and discover others which are really nice to look at, and which I might consider planting. Right now I learned, for instance, about the Dutch Master daffodils, which I see a lot here in Romania, the Excelsior Group foxglove, an more. It made me curious to find out how these names originated.

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