Jamaican Fruit Bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) and Coffea Diversa Garden Varietals in Costa Rica

by DerdriuMarriner

La Amistad is a World Heritage Site in Costa Rica and Panama. Cattle make the international park’s Talamanca Range profitable. Forest-dwelling fruit bats make area coffees unique.

Parque Internacional La Amistad (“La Amistad International Park”) claims lands in two neighboring Central American countries, Costa Rica and Panama. It functions as:
• Transboundary Protected Area preserving traditional animal migration patterns;
• United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site protecting special cultures and geographies.

It has a total of 990,892.58 acres (401,000 hectares), whose dominant landform is mountainous -- Cordillera di Talamanca (Talamanca Mountain Range) -- and whose prevailing vegetation is tropical forest. It includes a 9.32-mile (15-kilometer) buffer for:
• Cultivating subsistence crops;
• Growing coffee;
• Producing beef.

Coffee-growing on the Finca Coffea Diversa (Diverse Coffee Farm) particularly inspires revenue-generating interest.
• Common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) nibble on coffee drupes and salivate coffee beans.

****
~ Contact information ~

Coffea Diversa on Facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/CoffeaDiversa

Coffea Diversa's website:
http://coffeadiversa.com/

Coffea Diversa in United States:
Ricardo M. Hernandez
Coffea Diversa, Inc
8664 Antrim Church Rd
Greencastle, Pennsylvania 17225-9541

low-roosting Jamaican Fruit Bat

A Jamaican Fruit Bat that was roosting low down on a palm tree at Cottages.
A Jamaican Fruit Bat that was roosting low down on a palm tree at Cottages.

 

Common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) natively frequent:

  • Caribbean America (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands);
  • Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama);
  • Mexico (Michoacán, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas);
  • South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela).

They prefer ecosystems with monthly:

  • Actual evapotranspiration at 50.35 inches (1,278.5 millimeters);
  • Humidity at 55 – 95%;
  • Precipitation at 5.8 inches (147.19 millimeters);
  • Temperatures at 69.8 – 84.2°F (21 – 29°C).

They sustain life cycles and natural histories:

  • At altitudes between sea level and 7,004.59 feet (2,135 meters);
  • In cloud, deciduous, evergreen, and scrub forests.

 

 

Within forested and wooded habitats, each adult male common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bat claims for every harem of 12+ females and newborns niches within:

  • Defensible caves whose temperatures hover between 77 and 78°F (25 and 26°C);
  • Dense canopies;
  • Rock fissures and overhangs;
  • Rural buildings;
  • Tree hollows.

Between exiting birth harems and joining new harems, juvenile females consider loose communities amidst thick vegetation with juvenile males. They construct hanging, leafy tents by snapping the midribs (central veins) to palm fronds. The temporary homes get abandoned once 8-month-old, sexually mature females mate with 12-month-old, sexually mature males and produce 1 newborn per:

  • First bi-annual, resource-rich, wet-season gestation of 3.5 – 4 months;
  • Second bi-annual, resource-rich, wet-season gestation of 6 – 8 months.

 

Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis)

closeup
closeup

 

Pups arrive heads-first. Birth weights average 0.21 ounces (5.9 grams). Pups consume milk for 15 days. Permanent teeth develop within 40 days. Pups fly within 50 days. Each has:

  • Black, black-brown, grey upper-fur silver-tinged by white-based hairs;
  • Black, black-brown, broad, short, velvet-furred wings;
  • Black, black-brown, hairless, narrow tail membranes;
  • Large head;
  • Perfumed soap-like body odor;
  • Triangular, wide-spaced ears;
  • 2 stripes above and 2 below big eyes;
  • Well-developed nose-leaf.

Maturity within 80 days involves:

  • Ear lengths: 0.79 – 1.06 inches (20 – 27 millimeters);
  • Forearm lengths: 2.05 – 2.65 inches (52.0 – 67.4 millimeters);
  • Head-and-body lengths: 3.07 – 3.50 inches (78 – 89 millimeters);
  • Hindfoot lengths: 0.63 – 0.71 inches (16 – 18 millimeters);
  • Weights: 1.27 – 1.69 ounces (36 – 48 grams);
  • Wingspans: 15.98 inches (406 millimeters).

 

Artibeus jamaicensis

Alex Borisenko, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario
Alex Borisenko, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario

 

Three skills are super-critical for juveniles to dominate and adults to maintain:

  • Eluding predatory mammals, raptors, and reptiles;
  • Handling couple, group, and single midnight forays;
  • Remembering ever-changing forage routes and meal posts.

Their perfection ensures safe, successful flights and perches for:

  • Berries, cherries, drupes, fruits;
  • Invertebrates (especially insect pests);
  • Leaves;
  • Nectar;
  • Pollen.

Food-seeking indeed functions as a life-sustaining activity not only super-important to common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bats but also well-understood by their researchers.  Twenty-first century chiroptologists (bat specialists) have 193 years of local anecdotes and scientific investigations to consult since the common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bat’s formal taxonomic presentation in 1821 by Plymouth-born English marine biologist, physician, and zoologist William Elford Leach (February 2, 1790 – August 25, 1836).

 

Cecropia obtusifolia with fruit, known as snake fingers: popular food for Jamaican Fruit Bats, which join other snake finger-lovers in seed dispersal by not injesting the fruits' seeds.

Playa Car, Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, southeastern Mexico
Playa Car, Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, southeastern Mexico

 

Scientists consistently acknowledge the common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bat’s obligate environmentalism in:

  • Controlling pests;
  • Dispersing seeds;
  • Pruning vegetation;
  • Spreading pollen.

Bat dentition advances folivory and frugivory through:

  • Micro-indented super-surfaces for grinding pulp;
  • Sharp outer molar edges for piercing fruit skin and leaf tissue.

It encourages “tent-camping” in:

  • Polaris (Asterogyne martiana), royal (Scheelea rostrata), Savannah (Sabal mauritiiformis), spiny (Bactris wendlandiana), and suita (Geonoma congesta) palms;
  • Short-stem philodendron (Philodendron fragrantissimum).

It favors from 80+ plant genera:

  • Almond (Terminalia), breadfruit (Brosium), coffee (Coffea), female-guarumo (Cecropia), fig (Ficus), and hog-plum (Spondias) fruits;
  • Balsa (Ochroma), calabash (Crescentia), cashew (Anacardium), mountain-ebony (Bauhinia), pot-bellied silk-cotton (Pseudobombax), sapodilla (Manilkara), silk-cotton (Ceiba), and stink-locust (Hymenaea) flowers, nectar, and pollen;
  • Beauty-leaf (Calophyllum), coral (Erythrina), and fig (Ficus) leaves.

 

Finca Coffea Diversa Jardin Variedades

posted January 2, 2014
posted January 2, 2014

 

Amateurs, experts, and locals likewise attribute brave generosity to common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bats. Short-lasting pulses of 15 kHz caution all bats of predatory presences. Exfiltrations do not discriminate between fellow Artibeus jamaicensis (face-lined Jamaicans) and other taxonomies. Enemy and food issues dominate alarms and extractions. Fruit-feeding particularly grates agro-industrialists since non-native coffee trees are super-favorites despite native fig and naturalized almond trees representing historic preferences. It contrastingly inspires Costa Rica’s Biolley Valley coffee-growers -- whose 200 cedar-, erythrina-, and inga-shaded coffee cultivars, species, and varieties embellish the world’s largest private coffee garden -- to collect flesh-removed, mucilage-salivated, sun-dried Dilla Alghe (2742, 4100), Erecta, Geisha, Montecristo, Purpurascens, Villa Sarchi Jardinero beans for:

  • Cleaning;
  • Vacuum-packaging in 352.74-ounce (10-kilogram) bags.

 

Asian Common Palm Civet feeding on coffee berries

Kepahiang, Bengkulu Province, southern Sumatra, Maritime Southeast Asia, western Indonesia
Kepahiang, Bengkulu Province, southern Sumatra, Maritime Southeast Asia, western Indonesia

Concluson: Eco-friendly bat coffee

 

The term animal coffee calls forth images of Asian common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) enjoying drupes and expelling beans. Civet digestive systems theoretically impact the beans’ ultimate aroma, look, structure, and taste such that Southeast Asian entrepreneurs market super-profitable kopi luwak (civet coffee). The civet is neither native nor naturalized to corresponding latitudes in the Americas.

But another mammalian species may be the Western Hemisphere’s less controversial, less intrusive competitor regarding exotic, expensive coffees produced at altitudes 3,937.01 – 4,429.13 feet (1,200 – 1,350 meters) above sea level. Common Jamaican/Mexican fruit-eating bats receive credit for no-fuss, no-muss interactions yielding delicately acidic, floral, fruity coffees whose clean, straightforward, unique production:

  • Kittycat Cafelina approves;
  • Owner Gonzalo Hernández Solís perfects;
  • Visitors witness.

 

Artibeus jamaicensis: coffee partialities of an eco-friendly bat

Alex Borisenko, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario
Alex Borisenko, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario

Acknowledgment

 

My special thanks to:

  • Talented artists and photographers/concerned organizations who make their fine images available on the Internet;
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for superior on-campus and on-line resources.

 

Coffea Diversa coffee container loading for MTC Group Korea

Published on YouTube on September 9, 2012 by Ross Khaiitbaev ~ URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Udd7JrAtg_g

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Wrobel, Murray (Editor). 2007. Elsevier's Dictionary of Mammals: Latin English German French Italian. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier B.V.

 

Finca Coffea Diversa is located near La Amistad International Park in southern Costa Rica's Biolley Valley, on a ridge of the Talamanca Mountain Ridge, near the Panama Border: location benefits from air currents from Atlantic, via Caribbean, and Pacific.

panorama of Cordillera of Talamanca, centered on Costa Rica's highest peak, Cerro Chirripó, at 12,532 ft (3,820 m)
panorama of Cordillera of Talamanca, centered on Costa Rica's highest peak, Cerro Chirripó, at 12,532 ft (3,820 m)
the end which is also the beginning
the end which is also the beginning

Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World by Mark Pendergast

Uncommon Grounds tells the story of coffee from its discovery on a hill in ancient Abyssinia to the advent of Starbucks.
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Me and my purrfectly purrfect Maine coon kittycat, Augusta "Gusty" Sunshine

Gusty and I thank you for reading this article and hope that our product selection interests you; Gusty Gus receives favorite treats from my commissions.
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
Updated: 10/15/2014, DerdriuMarriner
 
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