Jerdon's Brown Palm Civets (Paradoxurus jerdoni): Ringtails of the Western Ghats in India

by DerdriuMarriner

Jerdon’s brown palm civets are named for a pioneer cataloguer of India’s animals and plants. They have all-brown, unspotted, unstriped physiques. They like having palm flower sap.

Of the entire vast Indian subcontinent, only the near-coastal southwest appeals to Jerdon's brown palm civets.
• The Western Ghats mountain range dominates the landscape.
• It also functions as the sole homeland of Jerdon's brown palm civets.
• It therefore grants them endemic status.

Exclusive bio-geographies sometimes have dire consequences for the survival and sustainability of animal and plant populations in the twenty-first century.
• Such fortunately is not the case with Jerdon's brown palm civets.

India offers diverse, plenteous natural resources in the context of lush scenery and pleasant weather.
• Entrepreneurs and tourists particularly relish southern India's humid warmth and moist fertility.
• But entrepreneurialism and tourism requires care so that local economies optimally are stimulated without stressing native wildlife.

Jerdon's Brown Palm Civet landscapes: Munnar, hill station at elevation of 5,600 ft (1,700 m) in Western Ghats

Western Ghats, southeastern Kerala state, southwestern India
Western Ghats, southeastern Kerala state, southwestern India

 

Protected tropical rainforests on south India's Western Ghats anticipate the bio-geographical needs of Jerdon's brown palm civets. The mountain range in question belongs among the striking landforms in:

  • Goa;

  • Gujarat;

  • Karnataka;

  • Kerala;

  • Maharashtra;

  • Tamil Nadu.

It benefits from recognition as a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site since 2012. The persistence of primary vegetation per original extent and the prevalence and total of endemic species every 100 square kilometers confer to the range ranking among the world's “hottest hotspots” (Myers et al., 2000:Table 6) with:

  • Brazilian Atlantic Forest;

  • Caribbean;

  • Indo-Myanmar;

  • Kenyan/Tanzanian Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests;

  • Madagascar;

  • Philippines;

  • Sundaland.  

 

 

A precept regarding civets associates agility, appearance, and arborealism. Arboreal and terrestrial fleetness belongs to spotted, striped physiques. But Jerdon's limber, tree-dwelling brown palm civets break the mold. They communicate all-brown, whose uniformity sometimes admits:

  • Darkening from black-brown ears, heads, limbs, necks, shoulders, and tails;

  • Grizzling from grey-ringed strands;

  • Lightening from whitish-yellow-tipped tails.

The coats of the nominate (“first-named”) subspecies, Paradoxurus jerdoni jerdoni, convey rich darkness which pales to buff or tan in the alternate subspecies. Darker or lighter, they function as effective camouflage for the escape-artist survivalism of:

  • Alert ears;

  • Big, dark-adapted eyes;

  • Super-nimble limbs;

  • 12 incisors, 4 canines, 16 premolars, and 8 molars;

  • 20 curved, sharp claws.   

 

Jerdon's Brown Palm Civets received formal description from skins and skull discovered in garden at Kodaikanal, a scenic hill station in Palani Hills, which comprise eastward extension of the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hot spot.

Kodaikanal, Dindigul district, southwestern Tamil Nadu state, southern India
Kodaikanal, Dindigul district, southwestern Tamil Nadu state, southern India

 

Formal presentation of Jerdon's brown palm civets in 1885 describes moth-damaged skins and skull discovered in Mr. F. Levinge's garden at Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency and forwarded from Ahmednagar. Bombay Presidency by Reverend S.B. Fairbank. It honors William Thomas Blanford (October 7, 1832 – June 23, 1905), as:

  • Geological Survey of India London-born scientist;

  • The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma publisher with Eugene William Oates (December 31, 1845 – November 16, 1911).

The genus indicates “paradoxes” of:

  • Forward-growing nape hairs;

  • Super-long upper-jaw opening.

The species memorializes Jedburgh-born naturalist Thomas Caverhill Jerdon (October 12, 1811 – June 12, 1872), as:

  • Edinburgh University medical graduate;

  • East India Company surgeon;

  • Madras Hospitals Deputy Inspector-General.   

 

British physician Thomas Caverhill Jerdon, namesake of Jerdon's Brown Palm Civet, was a pioneer ornithologist who lived in India for over 3 decades and presented over 1000 avian species in his magnum opus, "The Birds of India."

portrait by Woodbury Company
Allan O. Hume, The nests and eggs of Indian birds, Vol. I (1889)
Allan O. Hume, The nests and eggs of Indian birds, Vol. I (1889)

 

The official introduction of the subspecies Paradoxurus jerdoni caniscus to wildlife-loving amateurs and professionals outside India comes in 1933. It examines a specimen from Virajpet, Karnataka. It expresses the taxonomic conclusions of Reginald Innes Pocock (March 4, 1863 – August 9, 1947), as:

  • Clifton-born biology and geology student at University College, Bristol;

  • London Natural History Museum arachnologist (spider specialist), myriapodologist (centipede and millipede specialist), ornithologist (bird specialist), and taxonomist;

  • London Zoo superintendent.

The results of its analysis give credence and validity to:

  • The local designation kart-nai (“dog of the woods”);

  • The subspecies identification caniscus (“dog-like”).

Any canine comparison generally identifies as most similar feature the elongated, extended dog- or otter-like muzzles of Jerdon's brown palm civets.

    Brown Palm Civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni) in native habitat

    Munnar, Kerala State, southwestern India
    Munnar, Kerala State, southwestern India

     

    Dog-like muzzles, fox-like bodies, mongoose-like limbs, and skunk-like scents anticipate arboreal, nocturnal, omnivorous life cycles and natural histories. Camera-trapped and museum specimens communicate physical and sexual maturity, with:

    • Head-and-body lengths of 16.54 – 24.41 inches (42 – 62 centimeters);

    • Tail lengths of 14.96 – 20.87 inches (38 – 53 centimeters);

    • Weights of 3.09 – 9.92 pounds (1.4 – 4.5 kilograms).

    Anecdotes, research, and technology confirm:

    • Births after 60 – 70-day early rainy-season gestations to 2 – 4 fur-covered, open-eyed offspring;

    • Dens in forks, hollows, Malabar giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) nests, and vines in large, primary-growth trees;

    • Diets of eggs, fish, flowers (Cullenia, Syzygium spp), fruits, insects, roots, and small mammals;

    • Time-out on open-canopied branches.

     

    Brown Palm Civet feeding on fig

    closeup of Brown palm civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni), also known as Jerdon's palm civet
    closeup of Brown palm civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni), also known as Jerdon's palm civet

     

    Scientists accredit Jerdon's brown palm civets with such elusive stealth that mammalogists mislabeled them extinct in Kodaikanal and Ootacamund. Jerdon's brown palm civets favor undisturbed rainforests at altitudes of 1,640.42 – 3,280.84 feet (500 – 1,000 meters) above sea level. They get used to plantation-dominated, rainforest-fragmented landscapes sheltering:

    • Dense-canopied forest patches;

    • Many-seeded, pulpy, small, water-laden, 0.39 – 0.79-inch-sized (1 – 2-centimeter) Ceylon olive, coffee, and wild nutmeg berries and drupes.

    They nevertheless handle differentially:

    • Cardamom, eucalyptus, tea, and teak plantations, whose products they disdain;

    • Coffee plantations, whose shade trees produce fruits.

    But fragmented habitats ultimately open Jerdon's brown palm civets to predation by:

    • Bushmeat-directed poachers;

    • Perfume- and pet-minded traders;

    • Ritual-oriented villagers.

     

    Jerdon's Brown Palm Civets have a distaste for cardamom, even though their homelands in southern India encompass the Cardamom Hills, part of southern Western Ghats so named for successful cardamom plantings on the hills' cool elevations.

    Cardamom plants on terraces, Cardamom Hills, India
    Cardamom plants on terraces, Cardamom Hills, India

    Conclusion:

     

    Modernizing and traditionalist interactions do not have to devastate urban and wildland interfaces. But the realization of reasonable outcomes does require reconciling population sustainability with environmental and human well-being. Few politico-economies indeed escape the power of world markets. India's vast geography gets the attention of many businesses and governments. Agro-industrial production for international trade gives India necessary revenue for socio-economic programs. But the pressure is intense to retain international trade's most advantageous niches. Exploitation of rich resources therefore may proceed super-fast. India indeed offers a case in point since agro-industrialism and over-hunting downsize and fragment the southwest's dense rainforests. Governmental protection, scientific research, and wildlife-loving activism currently work to sustain endemic populations of Jerdon's brown palm civets.

     

    Jerdon's Palm Civet ~ Paradoxurus Jerdoni

    illustration by Joseph Smit (July 18, 1836 – November 4, 1929)
    W.T. Blanford, "A Monograph of the Genus Paradoxurus, F. Cuvier" (1885), Plate XLIV
    W.T. Blanford, "A Monograph of the Genus Paradoxurus, F. Cuvier" (1885), Plate XLIV

    Acknowledgment

     

    My special thanks for:

    • Fine images that are made available on the Internet by talented photographers/concerned organizations;
    • Superior on-campus and on-line resources through Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

     

    Jerdon's Brown Palm Civet landscapes: Jog Falls, India's 2nd highest plunge waterfall, created by 829 foot (253 meter) of Sharvathi River in Karnataka's segment of Western Ghats

    Sagara, central Karnataka state, southwestern India
    Sagara, central Karnataka state, southwestern India

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    Jerdon's Brown Palm Civet synecology: Two sub-adult tigers watch gaurs (Bos gaurus), also called Indian bison, in Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area and Project Tiger reserve in Bababudan Mountain range, an outspur of Western Ghats.

    Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, southwestern Karnataka state, southwestern India
    Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, southwestern Karnataka state, southwestern India
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    the end which is also the beginning

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    Jungle travelers may never know that they are being quietly watched by "invisible" jungle dwellers, such as Jerdon's Brown Palm Civets.
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    Sahyadris: India's Western Ghats - A Vanishing Heritage by Kamal Bawa and Sandesh Kadur

    Far more ancient than the larger and better-known Himalayas to the north, the Sahyadris harbour the most intact rainforests in peninsular India. Countless species of plants and animals live here, many of which are found nowhere else on earth.
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    DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
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    Updated: 09/30/2014, DerdriuMarriner
     
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