Redbilled Streamertailed Doctor Birds (Trochilus polytmus): Hummingbirds Native Only to Jamaica

by DerdriuMarriner

Jamaicans call red-billed streamertails doctor birds. They consider them island icons. The shiny hummingbirds chase ants, nectar, and spiders everywhere but Jamaica’s easterly tip.

*****

Some islands harbor some of the same native animals and plants as nearby archipelagoes and mainlands. Others have endemic fauna and flora specific to them alone.
• Like many continents, most islands host as native land mammals bats.
• Also like most continents, many islands house imported and introduced wildlife.

All of the above is true regarding what grows and roams within the Caribbean Sea-defined borders of Jamaica. For example, Jamaica may be listed as:
• Native homeland of Caribbean and South America’s Amazonian giant centipedes (Scolopendra gigantean) and Caribbean, Central, and South America’s fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis);
• Naturalized homeland of south and southeast Asia’s small mongeese and mongooses (Herpestes javanicus);
• Sole homeland of red-billed streamertail doctor birds (Trochilus polytmus).

*****

satellite image of Jamaica: island paradise serves as only homeland of Red-Billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus).

Jacques Descloitres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Jacques Descloitres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

 

It augurs well for species to include within their life cycles and natural histories associations with Småland-born Swedish noble Carl Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), as:

  • Biologist;
  • Botanist;
  • Father of modern ecology and taxonomy;
  • Physician;
  • Zoologist.

Red-billed streamertail hummingbirds indeed have that connection in 1758 through the world-famous scientist’s descriptions for wildlife-loving amateurs and professionals outside Jamaica. It is a bit unexpected to find such a link between Jamaica’s bright but diminutive avian populations and eighteenth-century Europe’s leading investigative writer. But bio-geographical diversity may be credited with attracting worldwide scientific attention to Jamaica-gathered specimens bequeathed by Killyleagh-born British physician Sir Hans Sloane (April 16, 1660 – January 11, 1753) to the formation of London’s British Museum.

 

Sir Hans Sloane: the bequest of his library, Jamaican specimens and natural history collection, etc., was instrumental to foundation of British Museum.

1736 oil on canvas by Stephen Slaughter (1697 - 1765)
National Portrait Gallery, London: transferred from British Museum in 1879
National Portrait Gallery, London: transferred from British Museum in 1879

 

Jamaica’s national bird carries two sets of names. One set communicates what persists in common, non-scientific, popular terminology. It conserves for Jamaica’s avian icon such local designations as:

  • Doctor bird;
  • Green-and-black streamertail;
  • Jamaican streamertail;
  • Red-billed streamertail;
  • Ribbon-tail;
  • Scissors-tail;
  • Streamertail hummingbird;
  • Western streamertail.  

It contrasts with binomial (“two-name”), Latin, taxonomic nomenclatures of scientists. It does not have the same likelihood as common names of remaining unchanged over time. It expresses the vibrancy of scientific procedures by name changes in response to investigative revisions and technological breakthroughs. In regard to Jamaica’s long-tailed hummingbird, the modern categorization is Trochilus polytmus, from the respectively Latinized forms of the ancient Greek words:

  • τρόχιλος (trokhilos, “wren”);
  • πολυς (polys, “much”) and τιμη (timē, “worth”).

 

Green Grotto Caves: located near Discovery Bay, credited as first landing by Christopher Columbus (c. October 31, 1450/October 30, 1451 - May 20, 1506)

According to legend, during English invasion of 1655, Arawaks helped Spaniards to escape by way of caves' secret passages.
Saint Ann's Parish, north central coastal Jamaica
Saint Ann's Parish, north central coastal Jamaica

 

Wildlife-lovers assume that Jamaicans comprehend English-language references to red-billed streamertail hummingbirds. The Land of Springs counts among the world’s English-speaking countries as one of:

  • The colonies of the British Empire, since 1655;
  • The members of the Commonwealth of Nations, since 1962.

Visitors perhaps do not recall world history’s slippery course, whereby the apodiform (hummingbird, swift, tree swift) order member just as easily may be answering now to names in:

  • Arawak or Taíno;
  • Spanish.

European politico-economic and socio-linguistic interactions go back to Genoa-born Italian explorer and navigator Christopher Columbus’s (By October 31, 1451 – May 20, 1506) landing in 1494 at Discovery or St. Ann’s Bay. So Spanish in fact holds the record as Jamaica’s little-used, longest-spoken, non-indigenous language.

 

Admiral Sir William Penn: Father of Province of Philadelphia's founder William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718); extractor of Jamaica from Spanish control ~

ca. 1665-1666 oil on canvas by Sir Peter Lely (September 14, 1618–November 30, 1680), English court painter of Dutch origin
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, South East London, South East England
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, South East London, South East England

 

But the Land of Springs carries the Anglicization of the Arawakan name Xaymaca instead of the dedication to Spain’s patron saint, Santiago (de Zebedeo, A.D. 1st century – A.D. 44). The linguistic configuration comes about through Europe’s super-competitive financiers and rulers from the fifteenth century onward. Particular due goes to effective strategic planning and tactical maneuvers in 1655 under the leadership of:

  • Admiral William Penn (April 23, 1621 – September 16, 1670);
  • General Robert Venables (1612? – July 1687).

It also is due to the clever insights and crucial participation of such subsequent Jamaican power-holders as Captain John East (died after 1676) and Major Richard Hope that red-billed streamertails are studied by Jamaican English- and Jamaican patois-speaking locals and scientists.

 

Blue Mountains ranging into St Anne's Parish from St Andrew's Parish: Jamaica's eastern mountain range viewed from Hollywell National Park taken on Oatley Mountain trail inside park

southeastern Jamaica
southeastern Jamaica

 

Locals access red-billed streamertails everywhere except Jamaica’s easternmost extremity inhabited by:

  • Black-billed hummingbirds (Trochilus scitulus) of different bill widths, body sizes, calls, and courtships;
  • Hybrids at the Blue and John Crow Mountains’ intersections.

Despite closed and elfin forest habitat preferences, ribbon-tailed hummingbirds adapt to forest edges and water gardens. They consume:

  • Arachnids (especially spiders);
  • Insects (especially ants).

They drink nectars from:

  • Native Bauhinia (orchid tree), Besleria, Calliandra, Erythrina (coral tree), Hohenbergia, Meriania, Psychotria, and Tecoma (trumpet vine);
  • Naturalized Eucalyptus and Spathodea (African tulip tree).

They favor:

  • Altitudes 3,280.84 feet (1,000 meters) above sea level;
  • Niches 6.56 – 13.12 feet (2 – 4 meters) above ground level.

They inhabit higher elevations outside year-round breeding’s peak months of January to mid-May.

 

Female Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus)

Lime Tree Farm, Blue Mountains, Saint Andrew Parish, southeastern Jamaica
Lime Tree Farm, Blue Mountains, Saint Andrew Parish, southeastern Jamaica

 

Female streamer-swallows build 3.28 – 9.84 feet (1 – 3 meters) above ground cup-shaped, twig-secured nests with:

  • Cobweb-, fiber-, hair-lined interiors;
  • Lichen-bolstered exteriors.

Up to thrice yearly, females deliver two bean-sized, white eggs in 14 – 21 days. Hatchlings emerge black, with two grey rows topside. They fledge within 19 – 28 days. Communication involves:

  • High-pitched, wing-fluttered hums;
  • Metallic chink-chink, ting-ting;
  • Sharp tee-tee-tee, teeet-teeet.

Black-headed, ear-tufted adult males have:

  • 5.12- to 6.69-inch (13- to 17-centimeter) black streamertails;
  • 3.54- to 5.12-inch emerald bodies;
  • Weights averaging 0.18 ounces (5.2 grams).

White-belled females have:

  • Blue-and-green, streamerless, white-tipped tails;
  • 4.13-inch (10.5-centimeter) green bodies;
  • Lateral-spotted breasts;
  • Weights averaging 0.16 ounces (4.4 grams).

Coral-red male and dull red female dark-tipped bills measure 0.91 inches (2.3 centimeters) long.

 

Trochilus polytmus synecology: Jamaican giant swallowtail (Papilio homerus), Western Hemisphere's largest swallowtail butterfly ~

Once plentiful, but now endangered, Jamaican giant swallowtail is found only in Blue and John Crow Mountains and central northwest Jamaica's Cockpit Country rainforest
Ulster Museum, Belfast Botanic Gardens, Northern Ireland
Ulster Museum, Belfast Botanic Gardens, Northern Ireland

Conclusion: iridescent glitterings of an endemic hummingbird in a Caribbean paradise

 

Two must-see Jamaican animals include:

  • Giant Homerus swallowtails (Papilio homerus);
  • Red-billed streamer-tailed doctor birds.

Everybody knows that the above-mentioned butterflies commemorate Homer (flourished 8th century B.C.?), ancient spokesperson for displaced civilizations. Nobody knows why the afore-referenced hummingbirds get called doctor birds. People mull:

  • Medical achievements by coattail- and hat-wearing European doctors;
  • Medicinal benefits to flowers lanced by hummingbird bills;
  • Reincarnation channels from dead souls to live scissortails;
  • Ritual practices by tobacco-frequenting (Nicotiana spp) shamans and streamertails.

But until Arawak petroglyphs or European diaries disprove or prove the preceding hypotheses, it will be possible to love completely -- without understanding totally (A River Runs Through It, p. 159) -- Air Jamaica’s avian logo and Jamaican parks’ lepidopteran icon.

 

Male Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus)

Lime Tree Farm, Blue Mountains, Saint Andrew Parish, southeastern Jamaica
Lime Tree Farm, Blue Mountains, Saint Andrew Parish, southeastern Jamaica

Acknowledgment

 

My special thanks to:

  • Talented artists and photographers/concerned organizations who make their fine images available on the Internet;
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for superior on-campus and on-line resources.

 

floral synecology: Trochilus polytmus, under synonym of Aiturus polytmus, with Phycella herbertiana

illustration by Louis Victor Bevalet (1808 - )
Étienne Mulsant and Édouard Verreaux, Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-Mouches (1874): plates after p. 244
Étienne Mulsant and Édouard Verreaux, Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-Mouches (1874): plates after p. 244

Sources Consulted

 

Arlott, N. 2010. Birds of the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bergin, Mike. 2 March 2010. "Black-Billed Streamertail." 10,000 Birds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://10000birds.com/black-billed-streamertail.htm

Bergin, Mike. 27 October 2009. "The Doctor Bird." 10,000 Birds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://10000birds.com/the-doctor-bird.htm

BirdLife International 2012. "Trochilus polytmus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22687469/0

BirdLife International. 2012. "Trochilus scitulus." IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 16, 2014. 

  • Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/22687474/0

BirdLife International. 2014. Species Factsheet: Black-billed Streamertail -- Trochilus scitulus. Compiled by J. Ekstrom and S. Butchart. Evaluated by S. Butchart and A. Symes. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=1919

BirdLife International. 2014. Species Factsheet: Red-billed Streamertail -- Trochilus polytmus. Compiled by J. Ekstrom and S. Butchart. Evaluated by S. Butchart and A. Symes. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=1918

Bisby, F.A.; Roskov, Y.R.; Orrell, T.M.; Nicolson, D.; Paglinawan, L.E.; Bailly, N.; Kirk, P.M.; Bourgoin, T.; Baillargeon, G.; Ouvrard, D. (red.) 2011. "Trochilus polytmus Linnaeus, 1758." Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist. Reading, U.K.: Species 2000. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/details/species/id/6864612

Bisby, F.A.; Roskov, Y.R.; Orrell, T.M.; Nicolson, D.; Paglinawan, L.E.; Bailly, N.; Kirk, P.M.; Bourgoin, T.; Baillargeon, G.; Ouvrard, D. (red.) .2011. "Trochilus scitulus Brewster & Bangs, 1901." Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist. Reading, U.K.: Species 2000. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/details/species/id/6924222

"Black-billed Streamertail." Birds of Jamaica. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://louisville.edu/research/jamaicanbirds/black-billed-streamertail-hummingbird.html

"Black-billed Streamertail Hummingbirds." Beauty of Birds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://beautyofbirds.com/blackbilledstreamertailhummingbirds.html

"Black-billed Streamertail -- Trochilus scitulus (Brewster & Bangs, 1901)." Xeno-canto administered by Bob Planqué, Willem-Pier Vellinga, Sander Pieterse, and Jonathon Jongsma. The Netherlands: Xeno-canto Foundation.

  • Available at: http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Trochilus-scitulus

Brewster, William; and Bangs, Outram. 8 February 1901. "On an overlooked species of Aithurus." Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 2:47-50.

  • Available aia Biodiversity Heritage Library at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/45428#page/83/mode/1up

Brokaw, Julia. 2012. "Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus)." In: Neotropical Birds Online edited by T.S. Schulenberg. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=251771

del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N.J.; Christie, D.A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain; and Cambridge, U.K.: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (Ed.). 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions.

"Doctor Bird." Jamaica Travel and Culture: Icons. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.jamaicatravelandculture.com/national-icons/doctor-bird.htm

Gayle, Wellesley. "The Jamaica Hummingbird." My Island Jamaica. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.my-island-jamaica.com/jamaica_hummingbird.html

"Genus Trochilus." BioLib.cz: Taxon Profile > Trochilidae > Hummingbirds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id23819/

Gill, Frank B.; Stokes, F.J.; and Stokes, C. 1973. "Contact Zones and Hybridization in the Jamaican Hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus (L.)." Condor 75(2):170-176.

Gilliland, Ken. 26 June 2013. "Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus). Emperor Ken's World. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.empken.com/wiki/index.php5?title=Red-billed_Streamertail#

Goodrich, S.G. 1859. Illustrated Natural History of the Animal Kingdom, Being a Systematic and Popular Description of the Habits, Structure, and Classification of Animals, from the Highest to the Lowest forms, with Their Relations to Agriculture, Commerce, Manufactures, and the Arts. Volume II.

Gosse, Philip Henry; and Hill, Richard. 1847. The Birds of Jamaica. London, England: John van Voorst, Patternoster Row.

  • Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library at: https://archive.org/details/cbarchive_49079_thebirdsofjamaica1847

Graves, G.R. 2009. "Ontogeny of Bill Color in Streamertail Hummingbirds." Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 22:44-47.

Graves, Gary R. 2009. “Skeletal Correlates of Body Weight in the Black-billed Streamtail (Trochilus scitulus) of Jamaica.” Caribbean Journal of Science 45 (1):69-72.

Hausman, Gerlad. 2007. Doctor Bird: Three Lookin' Up Tales from Jamaica. Illustrated by Ashley Wolff. Irie Books.

Haynes-Sutton, Ann; Downer, Audrey; & Sutton, Robert. 2009. A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Jamaica. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hinds, Zoe Ann. 2 March 2009. "Red-billed Streamertail Hummingbird." Hummingbirds For Mom. Retrieved October 16, 2014. 

  • Available at: http://hummingbirdsformom.com/hummingbirds/red-billed-streamertail-hummingbird/

Hoilett, Aldane. 2013. "Trochilus polytmus: Red-billed Streamertail (also: Streamertail [Online])." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Trochilus_polytmus/

Jobling, James A. 2010. Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, England: Christopher Helm.

Lepage, Denis. "Black-billed Streamertail (Trochilus scitulus) Brewster & Bangs, 1901." Avibase. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?lang=EN&avibaseid=7D8643AF6964B182

Lepage, Denis. "Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) Linnaeus, 1758." Avibase. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?lang=EN&avibaseid=07E19970DF282BEE

Linné, Carl von. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Stockholm, Sweden: Imprensis Direct Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm. 

  • Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/137/mode/1up

MacColl, A.D.C.; and Lewis, S. 2000. "Hybridisation and Ecology of Jamaican Streamertail Hummingbirds." BirdLife Jamaica Broadsheet 75:4-10.

Maclean, Norman. 1976. A River Runs Through It and Other Stories. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C.S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G.S.; and Dewey, T.A.. 2014. "Trochilus polytmus: Red-billed Streamertail (also: Streamertail)." The Animal Diversity Web (Online). University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Trochilus_polytmus/classification/

Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C.S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G.S.; and Dewey, T.A.. 2014. "Trochilus scitulus: Black-billed Streamertail." The Animal Diversity Web (Online). University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Trochilus_scitulus/classification/#Trochilus_scitulus

Peterson, Alan P. 16 August 2014. "Apodiformes." Zoonomen: Version 1.041. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.zoonomen.net/avtax/apod.html

"Red-billed Streamertail." Birds of Jamaica. Louiville, KY: University of Louisville. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://louisville.edu/research/jamaicanbirds/red-billed-streamertail.html
  • Available at: http://louisville.edu/research/jamaicanbirds/document.2008-12-21.7396901734

"Red-billed Streamertailed Hummingbirds." Beauty of Birds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://beautyofbirds.com/redbilledstreamertailhummingbirds.html

Saint-Hilaire, Étienne Geoffroy. 1827. “Mémoire sur deux espèces d'animaux nommés Trochilus et Bdella par Hérodote, leur guerre, et la part qu'y prend le Crocodile.” Mémoires du Muséum d'histoire naturelle 15:459-474.

  • Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/108789#page/501/mode/1up

Schuchmann, K.-L. 1980. Die Jamaika Kolibris Trochilus polytmus und Trochilus scitulus. Frankfurt and Baden-Baden, Germany: Biotropic-Verlag.

Schuchman, Karl-L. 2002. "Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus)." Pp. 463-464 in Grzmek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition. Volume 9, Birds II, edited by Michael Hutchins, Jerome A. Jackson, Walter J. Bock, and Donna Olendorf. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.

Sherony, Dominic. "Black-billed Streamertail." The Website of Everything: Birds > Apodiformes > Trochilidae > Trochilus. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://thewebsiteofeverything.com/animals/birds/Apodiformes/Trochilidae/Trochilus-scitulus

Sherony, Dominic. "Streamertail." The Website of Everything: Birds > Apodiformes > Trochilidae > Trochilus. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://thewebsiteofeverything.com/animals/birds/Apodiformes/Trochilidae/Trochilus-polytmus

"Streamertails -- the Jamaican Hummingbirds." Beauty of Birds. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://beautyofbirds.com/streamertailhummingbirds.html

Tortello, Dr. Rebecca. 5 April 2004. "Colourful Characters -- Jamaica's Birds." Jamaica Gleaner: Pieces of the Past. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0061.htm

"Trochilus." UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.unep-wcmc-apps.org/isdb/CITES/Taxonomy/tax-genus-result.cfm?displaylanguage=fra&Country=&source=animals&Genus=4923

"Trochilus polytmus Linnaeus, 1758." ITIS Report: Integrated Taxonomic Information System Taxonomic Serial No. 555141. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=555141

"Trochilus polytmus (Streamertail)." ZipcodeZoo: Identifier 132225. Retrieved October 16, 2014. 

  • Available at: http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/t/trochilus_polytmus/

"Trochilus scitulus (Brewster & Bangs, 1901)." ITIS Report: Integrated Taxonomic Information System Taxonomic Serial No. 693152. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

  • Available at: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=693152

"Trochilus scitulus (Black-billed Streamertail)." ZipcodeZoo: Identifier 676814. Retrieved October 16, 2014. 

  • Available at: http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/t/trochilus_scitulus/

 

iridescent emerald body of male Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus)

Jamaica's national bird
Jamaica's national bird
the end which is also the beginning
the end which is also the beginning

Advice From A Hummingbird: light blue t-shirt ~ Available via Amazon

Sip the sweet moments ~ Let your true colors glow ~ Don't get your feathers ruffled over little things ~ Just wing it ~ Take yourself lightly ~ Keep your visits short and sweet!
hummingbird-themed apparel

Advice From A Hummingbird: light blue sweatshirt by Earth Sun Moon ~ Available via Amazon

Advice: Sip the sweet moments ~ Let your true colors glow ~ Don't get your feathers ruffled over little things ~ Just wing it ~ Take yourself lightly ~ Keep your visits short and sweet!
hummingbird-themed apparel

A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Jamaica by Ann Haynes-Sutton, Audrey Downer, Robert Sutton, and Yves-Jacques Rey-Millet

Covers all of Jamaica's 300+ bird species, including about 25 endemics and vagrants. Features 650 stunning color photographs.
Avian Jamaica-themed books

Jamaica national flag: black t-shirt ~ Available via AllPosters

Jamaica National Flag
Ad AllPosters

Me and my purrfectly purrfect Maine coon kittycat, Augusta "Gusty" Sunshine:

Gusty and I thank you for reading this article and hope that our product selection interests you; Gusty Gus receives favorite treats from my commissions.
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
Updated: 10/17/2014, DerdriuMarriner
 
Thank you! Would you like to post a comment now?
2

Comments


   Login

You might also like

Ring-Tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas caribaea): The Wood Pigeon Pr...

Ring-tailed pigeons are Caribbean island birds. They can be seen as super-rar...

Hinton East and Spring Garden: Fabled Magnificence of a Lost J...

Hinton East believed in Jamaica's beautiful sustainability. He left his world...


Disclosure: This page generates income for authors based on affiliate relationships with our partners, including Amazon, Google and others.
Loading ...
Error!