There is much discussion about screening for ovarian cancer. This is understandable as it is the most deadly of all female reproductive cancers. In fact, the discovery of its presence in a woman generally takes place when the tumor has already spread beyond the ovary. Nevertheless, excessive screening may be detrimental to women because the results can lead to surgical procedures and subsequent medical complications .
This has especially happened to those who have a false positive cancer antigen (CA) 125 test. The U. S. Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend routine screening for this illness. Moreover, studies in the United Kingdom and the United States do not show much benefit from it .
The Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) is an approach which researchers in the United Kingdom have utilized, and it includes several variables. Specifically, age, menopausal status, genetic mutations, family history of ovarian or breast cancer, and the presence of Ashkenazi Jewish descent in the woman may create a predisposition for the disease .
Variation of CA 125 levels will also increase risk of ovarian cancer occurrence .
For women of average risk, clinicians do not recommend screening for this illness. In other words, these clients do not need annual ultrasonography or CA 125 screening. However, death rates from ovarian cancer have not declined much over the last three decades .
In premenopausal individuals, it is possible to decrease risk for this infirmity when they breastfeed, use hormonal contraception, or become pregnant [1, 2].
There has long been evidence that death rates in women decline because of other variables. These include clients who have ever been pregnant and those who have breastfed their babies. Nonsmokers who have used oral contraceptives also demonstrate lower death rates than patients who do not meet those criteria .