I’ve recently been experimenting with using lichen as a dye for wool. Some lichens, the umbilicates, roccella and others can produce gorgeous reds, purples and blues, but I have yet to find them. I have been experimenting with the more common types. I’m testing ways to process the dye and to see what develops.
Dyeing Wool with Lichens
Lichens are plentiful around here so I tried dyeing wool with some common varieties.
Lichens are not plants, but a composite organism generally consisting of algae and fungi. They are not parasitic as many believe, and do not harm the trees they attach themselves to. They are extremely sensitive to air quality and can be scarce where the air is unhealthy. Some are rare so I follow the rule of not taking more than 10% of any plant in any one area leaving 90% behind. That hasn’t been a problem with these lichens since they are plentiful.
I haven’t been able to identify them with any certainly but to the best of my knowledge, I have a variety of foliose lichen on the left with foliage type lobes. I also have more than one of fruiticose lichen on the right that looks more shrub-like. This first batch was from lichen gathered in New Hampshire. I will do another batch with lichen from Texas later on and see if there is a difference.
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|Lichens of North America|
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Making the Dye Bath and Dyeing the Wool
I gathered the lichen from branches bearing lichens on the ground usually after a high wind. I dried them and saved them in a bag until I had enough. I crushed them up, covered with water and about 50% water and 50% ammonia. Then I let it sit, and sit.
According to the book, the brew should sit and ferment for four weeks or more being stirred twice daily. The dye bath turned a rich brown color. Finally I strained out the lichens, put the liquid in my stainless steel dye pot, added clean, wet wool and simmered for about an hour.
Dyeing the Wool
My first look was not impressive. It was the same tan I could get from other plants or tea. I let it sit for a couple of days and added a bit of ammonia. Finally I simmered it again with some vinegar added. This seemed to help the wool soak up the dye resulting in a pretty reddish brown color. It was a lot of time and work for a color I could get more easily with other plants. It is a pretty brown through.
The Next Batch
I’ll try another batch with lichen gathered in Texas. It’s very possible that I will have gathered different types of lichen and may get a different color. I won’t know until I try it. I can also reuse the first dye bath since there is plenty of dye left in it. I can try putting it in a non-neutral pot such as aluminum and see what that element will do to change the color, if anything.
I'm posting results on my blog, Cheap Twills, if you'd like to stop by and see what's happening.