Ferdinand Bauer: "the Leonardo of natural history illustration"

by DerdriuMarriner

Ferdinand Bauer created exquisitely realistic paintings and sketches of the natural world via an intricate chart of 1,000+ color references, key components of his artistry.

Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (January 20, 1760 - March 17, 1826) was born in Feldsberg, Moravia (now Valtice, Czech Republic), as the youngest son of Lucas Bauer, court painter to the Prince of Liechtenstein, Joseph Wenzel I (August 9, 1696 - February 10, 1772).

Ferdinand’s father passed away in 1761 while Ferdinand was still a baby, leaving behind five other children and a widow, Therese.

regal patron of Ferdinand Bauer's father
Joseph Wenzel I (Josef Václav z Lichtenštejna)~1740 oil on canvas by Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 18, 1659-December 29, 1743)
Joseph Wenzel I (Josef Václav z Lichtenštejna)~1740 oil on canvas by Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 18, 1659-December 29, 1743)

Codex Liechtenstein:

First botanical illustrations by Bauer prodigies


Ferdinand and two brothers -- Franz Andreas (March 14, 1758 - December 11, 1840) and Joseph Anton (1756 - 1831) -- were engaged, beginning in 1770, by Norbert Boccius (1729 - 1806), botanist-physician Prior of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of God in Feldsberg, to paint miniature watercolor illustrations of approximately 3,100 plants, including native flora of Lower Austria (in northeastern Austria) and of Moravia (in southeastern Czech Republic). The illustrations, totalling 2,748, were ultimately published in the fourteen-volume Liber Regni Vegetabilis (“Book of the Plant Kingdom”). Most of volumes 1 through 8, published from 1776 to 1793, respectively, are attributed to the Bauer brothers.

In 1799, the floral masterpiece became known as Codex Liechtenstein with its presentation by Norbert Boccius to Prince Aloys I of Liechtenstein (May 14, 1759 - March 24, 1805). The close relationship between the House of Liechtenstein and the Hospitaller Order dates back to 1605 when Prince Karl I of Liechtenstein (July 30, 1569 - February 12, 1627) established the monastery and hospital in Feldsberg as the first branch of the Order north of the Alps. Codex Liechtenstein was kept in the royal family's Garden Palace (Gartenpalais) in Vienna until around 1938, when, in the tenuous events leading to the outbreak of the Second World War (September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945), it -- along with other treasures in the Princely Collections (Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein) -- was smuggled for safekeeping to Vaduz Castle (Schloss Vaduz) in the eponymous capital of the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein).

Based in Vaduz Castle, the Princely Collections are displayed partially in the Liechtenstein Art Museum (Kunstmuseum) and partially in Vienna, where the Liechtenstein Museum reopened in the Garden Palace on March 29, 2004. Presently Codex Liechtenstein is held in the permanent collection of the Liechtenstein Museum.


ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomea hederacea):  possibly drawn by Ferdinand Bauer.
ivyleaf morning glory (Ipomea hederacea): possibly drawn by Ferdinand Bauer.

Icones Plantarum Rariorum:

Ferdinand and Franz in Vienna


In 1780 Ferdinand and the middle son, Franz Andreas, moved to Vienna, where they studied at the Akademie der Künste (Academy of Art) and were directed in botanical taxonomy (Greek: τάξις, taxis, "arrangement" + νομία, nomia, "method"), microscopy, and landscape painting by (Baron) Nikolaus von Jacquin (February 16, 1727 - October 26, 1817), Director of the Royal Botanical Garden at Schönbrunn (“beautiful spring”) Palace, the Habsburg (1278-1918) dynasty’s summer residence, and Professor of Botany and Chemistry at the University of Vienna (Universität Wien), the oldest continuously operating university in the German-speaking world, having been founded in 1365 by Duke Rudolf IV (November 1, 1339 - July 27, 1365) of the House of Habsburg.


A music lover, Baron Jacquin played flute in house concerts with his daughter Franziska (1769- 1850) and her piano teacher Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Jan 27, 1756–Dec 5, 1791).
portrait of Nikolaus von Jacquin by Heinrich Füger (Dec 8, 1751-Nov 5, 1818)
portrait of Nikolaus von Jacquin by Heinrich Füger (Dec 8, 1751-Nov 5, 1818)


More importantly, Ferdinand and Franz participated with two other botanical draughtsmen, Johannes Scharf (1765-1794) and Josef Hofbauer (1752-1809), in the illustration of Professor Jacquin’s three volume Icones Plantarum Rariorum (“Illustrations of Rare Plants”), which features 648 hand-colored copper engravings. Volume I was compiled from 1781 to 1786, and Volumes II and III were completed between 1786 and 1793. The drawings, which are unsigned, frustrate attribution, although Ferdinand only participated until 1786 while Franz continued until 1788. Thus, Ferdinand's endeavors probably are restricted to the first volume.


Ferdinand Bauer worked with his brother Francis on Icones Plantarum Rariorum until 1786, when Ferdinand was selected for Engish botanist John Sibthorp's survey of plants of Greece.
Hypericum calycinum: watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer
Hypericum calycinum: watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer

Numbered color chart:

Painting by numbers


In the late eighteenth century natural history illustrators selected from three strategies for recording colors in preliminary sketches for their drawings:

  • Thorough written description;
  • Small painted portions of differently colored individual parts;
  • Abbreviated or coded descriptions, e.g., numerical references to a color chart.

These strategies allowed illustrators to refine their drawings at their leisure, which was particularly helpful for sketches executed en pleine air ("in the open air"), in field work, especially on expeditions abroad.

During their stay in Vienna, Ferdinand and Franz were definitely referring to a numbered color chart, which is believed to have been used, and probably devised, by the Bauer brothers back in Feldsberg. The Bauer color chart, which has been reconstructed by comparison of the Bauers' coded pencil sketches with the completed body-color drawings, has been determined to contain 140 enumerated color shades, tints, and tones.Tints lighten a particular hue, or color, through mixture with white; shades darken a particular hue through mixture with black; tones change a particular hue through mixture with black and white. Other gradations are achieved through mixture with complementary or adjacent colors in the color sphere.


Bohemian explorer-naturalist Thaddäus Xaverius Peregrinus Haenke (Czech: Tadeáš Haenke)
portrait by Austrian engraver/writer Vinzenz Raimund Grüner (1771-1832)
portrait by Austrian engraver/writer Vinzenz Raimund Grüner (1771-1832)

Library Archives of Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid):

Possibly long-lost Bauer color chart


Inserted into the midst of Systema Colorum Tabulare, a notebook by Bohemian explorer-naturalist Thaddäus Haenke (December 6, 1761 - November 14, 1816), is a color chart, measuring as a perfect square at 4.64 by 4.64 inches (118 by 118 millimeters) and bearing handwritten numbers that have been matched to numerals entered by Ferdinand on his sketches. Specifically, Ferdinand's idiosyncratic addition of a dot, in a superscript or other odd location, after the number 9. Moreover, the 140 swatches, which match the color scheme evinced in the Bauer brothers' Feldsberg and Vienna drawings, has been dated to before 1779.



rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus):  Ferdinand Bauer's watercolor from Australia expedition 1801-1803
rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus): Ferdinand Bauer's watercolor from Australia expedition 1801-1803

Ferdinand's refined color charts:

Increasing to 250 for the eastern Mediterranean and to over 1000 for Australia


Comparison of Ferdinand's sketches with final body-color drawings for his two major expeditions reveals continuous refinement of his color chart. Eastern Mediterranean flora necessitated a color chart of 250 shades, tints, and tones. Australia's uniquely spectacular fauna and flora expanded the code to 999 numbers plus added letters.


Hellebores officinalis: watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer from John Sibthorp's east Mediterranean survey March 1786-December 1787
Hellebores officinalis: watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer from John Sibthorp's east Mediterranean survey March 1786-December 1787

Flora Graeca:

the "Mona Lisa" of botanical illustration


Ferdinand’s career as expeditionary artist began, upon Professor Jacquin’s recommendation, in the retinue of Sherardian Professor of Botany at the University of Oxford John Sibthorp (October 28, 1758 - February 8, 1796) during his faunal and floral tour of Greece and the eastern Mediterranean from March 1786 to December 1787.

Settling afterwards in Oxford, England, Ferdinand devoted the one and one-third decades remaining in the eighteenth century to illustrating other projects while finalizing his massive output from the expedition, which consisted of:

  • 1,000 colored drawings of plants;
  • 363 of animals;
  • 131 of landscapes.

With John Sibthorp’s descriptions illustrated by 966 color engravings based on Ferdinand’s accurately executed and colored drawings, Flora Graeca was released in ten volumes over a span of more than three decades, from 1806 to 1840.

Subsequently regarded as one of the most magnificent botanical publications, Flora Graeca cost the colossal sum of over £620 to print the twenty-five copies that were released. Although considered at the time to be a commercial failure, the timeless scientific value of Flora Graeca was indisputable. The amazing exactitude of even the minutest details of form and the breathtaking verisimilitude (Latin: verum, "truth" + similis, "similar") of color nuances, sustained throughout the work in every luminous drawing, have instilled over the intervening centuries consistent awe at Ferdinand's indefatigable genius.


Gymea lily (Doryanthes excelsa): one of Ferdinand Bauer's most famous watercolors from Australia expedition 1801-1803
Gymea lily (Doryanthes excelsa): one of Ferdinand Bauer's most famous watercolors from Australia expedition 1801-1803

Illustrationes Florae Novae Hollandiae:

Incomparable artistry of the first detailed natural history of Australia


Ferdinand next was selected by botanist-naturalist Sir Joseph Banks (February 13, 1743 - June 19, 1820) as botanical draughtsman and naturalist’s assistant to Scottish botanist Robert Brown (December 21, 1773 - June 10, 1858) for the circumnavigation of Australia (then known as New Holland) commanded by Captain Matthew Flinders (March 16, 1774 - July 19, 1814), navigator and cartographer extraordinaire. Setting sail from Portsmouth on England's south coast on July 18, 1801, H.M. Sloop Investigator reached King George Sound, on the south coast of the present state of Western Australia, in December 1801.


drawing from specimen collected in South Australia in 1802 by HMS Investigator expedition botanist Robert Brown (December 21, 1773 – June 10, 1858)
Alyogyne hakeifolia:  watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer ~ Natural History Museum, London
Alyogyne hakeifolia: watercolor by Ferdinand Bauer ~ Natural History Museum, London

Most charming faunal discovery


The first illustration of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) is attributed to Ferdinand, who made sketches of specimens from Mount Kembla (then known as Hat Hill by settlers) in the Illiwarra district of New South Wales, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Sydney. Sketched in summer 1803, Ferdinand's charmingly accurate watercolors were completed in London around 1811.

The rigors of the expedition took their toll on Investigator, which was condemned as unseaworthy two years later after the beleaguered sloop limped into Port Jackson, Sydney’s natural habor. Robert Brown and Ferdinand wisely chose to headquarter in Sydney while Captain Flinders prepared to journey back to England to obtain a replacement for Investigator but ended up being detained for six and a half years, from December 17, 1803 until June 1810, as a prisoner of the French during the Napoleonic Wars (1803 to 1815) on the island of Mauritius off the southeast coast of Africa in the southwest Indian Ocean.

Ferdinand and Robert travelled extensively to partake of and record the lush biodiversity, not only of the fascinating continent, but also of such alluring neighbors as Norfolk  Island and Lord Howe Island. By the time that Ferdinand and Robert finally sailed for England from Sydney on May 23, 1805, Ferdinand had amassed 2,073 minutely detailed sketches. In England, Ferdinand focused on doing all of the color engravings of his Australian sketches himself for his botanical record of the expedition.


Constructed of Eucyalyptus with she-oak (Casuarina spp) veneer, desk bears inscription: "This desk was manufactured by a convict at Sydney in New Wales intirely of the native woods of that country ... presented to me by my brother Ferdinand Bauer, 1805."
travelling desk gifted by Ferdinand Bauer to his brother Francis ~ Museum No. 1, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
travelling desk gifted by Ferdinand Bauer to his brother Francis ~ Museum No. 1, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew


As observed by his brother, Franz, who served for fifty years as the first botanical illustrator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew:

"Ferdinand could not find people capable either of engraving or colouring the plates properly and consequently obliged to execute every part of the work with his own hands thus occupying far too much time. Very few indeed coloured copies has he been able to prepare and sell."

Eventually, only fifty copies were printed of Illustrationes Florae Novae Hollandiae (“Illustrations of the Flora of New Holland”), which was published in three parts from 1806 to 1813.


"Passionflowers", 1812 oil on wood panel by Ferdinand Bauer ~ Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide
"Passionflowers", 1812 oil on wood panel by Ferdinand Bauer ~ Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide

Pastoral beauty of the Vienna Woods


Returning to Vienna in August 1814, Ferdinand settled in Hietzing (now a district in the western sector of Vienna) near three refreshing natural sites: the Royal Botanical Garden at Schönbrunn, Lainzer Tiergarten and the Vienna Woods (Wienerwald). The next eleven and one-half years were devoted to his beloved painting and to excursions to the Austrian Alps and the surrounding countryside.

In his will, signed in poignantly tremulous handwriting on March 12, 1826, Ferdinand appointed three of his brothers as heirs -- Johann (born 1754),  Joseph, and Franz -- and he bequeathed his library and his microscope to botanist Heinrich Wilhelm Schott (January 7, 1794-March 5, 1865), who later, in 1845, became director of the Schönbrunn gardens. Ferdinand's estate included a valuable home as well as a London bank account.

Ferdinand passed away less than a week later and was laid to rest in Hietzing's cemetery, which is no longer in existence. In fact, nothing remains to indicate the location of Ferdinand's grave. Moreover, no portrait appears to have ever been drawn of this exceptional artist.


Library, where most of Ferdinand Bauer's watercolors are held, is located beyond central hall, opposite Marine Invertebrates Gallery.
Central Hall of Natural History Museum
Central Hall of Natural History Museum


"the Leonardo of natural history illustration"


Today, most of Ferdinand’s watercolors are held in London’s British Museum of Natural History. Most of Ferdinand’s drawings are held either in Vienna’s Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum) or in the Department of Plant Sciences at Oxford University.


bronze elephant sculpture by Annaberg, Lower Austria artist Gottfried Kumpf (born November 29, 1930) at entrance of Vienna's Natural History Museum, where many of Ferdinand's drawings are housed
baby elephant
baby elephant
University of Oxford Botanic Garden is closely linked with the Department of Plant Sciences and its Library and two Herbaria: the Department houses many of Ferdinand's drawings, including 966 original drawings for "Flora Graeca".
autumn foliage in Walled Garden, University of Oxford Botanic Garden
autumn foliage in Walled Garden, University of Oxford Botanic Garden


Ferdinand's artistry has always enjoyed the highest estimation of colleagues and botanists. Named in Ferdinand's honor by Captain Flinders, Cape Bauer on the Gibson Peninsula in South Australia, near Streaky Bay, is ruggedly picturesque exhibiting a sparkling palette of ever-changing colors in the exuberant interaction of land, sea, and sky. Authentically capturing the cape's beauty would require the full extent of Ferdinand's precise color chart. 

Native Australian plants honoring Ferdinand include:

  • Eucalyptus baueriana (round leaf box or blue box eucalyptus);
  • Grevillea baueri (Bauer's Grevillea).

The genus of eastern Australian endemic shrubs, Bauera Banks ex Andrews, honors both Ferdinand and his brother Franz. The genus was first described by Sir Joseph Banks (February 24, 1743 – June 19, 1820), who knew both brothers:

  • Franz, for whom he secured the position of first botanical  illustrator at Royal Gardens Kew, which Franz held from circa 1790 until his death in 1840;
  • Ferdinand, whom he assigned to the first European circumnaviation of Australia, 1801 - 1803.

Public recognition of Ferdinand's artistry, especially within its Australian context, occurred with two recent exhibitions. From April 27 through July 19, 1998, an exhibition at the National Library Gallery in the national capital of Canberra, “An Exquisite Eye: The Australian Flora and Fauna Drawings, 1801-1820, of Ferdinand Bauer,” highlighted the exquisite artistry of Ferdinand’s incomparable, monumental contributions to Australia’s natural history. From February 15 to April 21, 2002, Ferdinand's dazzling botanical and zoological depictions were included in an exhibit at Adelaide's Art Gallery of South Australia, "The Encounter, 1802: Art of the Flinders and Baudin Voyages."

Christened by renowned Australian art historian-critic Bernard William Smith (October 3, 1916 - September 2, 2011) as

the supreme botanical draughtsman, the Leonardo of natural history illustration.

Ferdinand displayed throughout his career amazing patience and perception in his dedication to producing scientific illustrations of the highest, most precise quality.

All who knew him respected his quiet, unassuming devotion to the full expression of his God-given talents and appreciated his disciplined, amiable personality. Ferdinand's prodigious, spectacular output, much of which was never published, fortunately has been largely preserved.

An encounter with Ferdinand Bauer's artistry promises an impressive display of glorious perfection.


Ferdinand Bauer provided precise, stunning illustrations for John Lindley's Monographia Digitalium (1821) and Aylmer Bourke Lambert's A Description of the Genus Pinus.
Digitalis ambigua (now grandiflora): hand-colored engraving of Ferdinand Bauer's drawing for Monographia Digitalium
Digitalis ambigua (now grandiflora): hand-colored engraving of Ferdinand Bauer's drawing for Monographia Digitalium



This article is dedicated to the memory of Ferdinand Bauer.




My special thanks to talented artists and photographers/concerned organizations who make their fine images available on the internet.


Cape Bauer panorama: named by Matthew Flinders to honor Ferdinand; located on Gibson Peninsula, state of South Australia
Cape Bauer panorama: named by Matthew Flinders to honor Ferdinand; located on Gibson Peninsula, state of South Australia

Sources Consulted


“Bauer, Ferdinand Lucas.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com.

  • Available at:  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2830900304.html

Bauer, Ferdinand. Illustrationes Florae Novae Hollandiae. London, 1813.

Blunt, Wilfrid, and William Thomas Stearn. The Art of Botanical Illustration: an Illustrated History. Fourth Edition. London: Collins, 1950.

Dwight, Florence. “In Honour of Ferdinand Bauer.” Australian Plants Online, Number 21 (March 28, 2001). Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants. (Last accessed June 16, 2011)

Eggli, Urs, and Leonard E. Newton. Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

"Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (1760 - 1826)." Alecto Historical Editions > Ferdinand Bauer. Editions Alecto. Web. alecto-historical-editions.co.uk

  • Available at: http://alecto-historical-editions.co.uk/Bauer%2520drawings.htm

Fox, Celina, ed. London – World City, 1800-1840. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

“Francis Bauer’s ‘Delineations of Exotick Plants.’ Bibliographical Notes XVIII. The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, Volume 37: 181-183. London: West, Newman & Co., 1899.

Fusina, Sandro. Bauer, Bauer & Co. Lodi: L’Erbolario Edizioni, 2002.

Gilbert, Lionel Arthur. “Bauer, Ferdinand Lukas (1760-1826).” Australian Dictionary of Biography. Volume 1. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1966.

Griffiths, George Edward. "Flinders's Voyage to Terra Australis." The Monthly Review, or Literary Journal, Vol. LXXVI (February 1815):  152-167.

Griffiths, George Edward. "Flinders's Voyage to Terra Australis." The Monthly Review, or Literary Journal, Vol. LXXVII (77) (May 1815): 35-54.

Hewson, Helen. Australia: 300 Years of Botanical Illustration. Forward by H.R.H. Prince of Wales. Collingwood: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publishing, 1999.

Jacquin, Nicolao Josepho, ed. Icones Plantarum Rariorum. Volumes I-III. Vienna: C.F. Wappler; London: B. White; Lyons: S. & J. Luchtmans; Strassburg: A. Konig, 1781-1793.

  • Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/329#/ summary
  • Volume I available via Internet Archive at:  http://archive.org/details/mobot31753000507233
  • Volume II available via Internet Archive at:  http://archive.org/details/mobot31753000507241
  • Volume III available via Internet Archive at:  http://archive.org/details/mobot31753000507258

Kruthoffer, Betsy. “A Brief Publishing History of Flora Graeca.” Lloydiana, Volume 14 No. 1-2 (Winter/Spring 2010): 12-13.

Lack, H. Walter. A Garden for Eternity: The Codex Liechtenstein. Berne: Bentelli, 2000.

Lack. H. Walter. "Recording form in early nineteenth century botanical drawing: Ferdinand Bauer's 'Cameras.'" Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Volume 15, Issue 4 (November 1998): 254-274.

Lack, H. Walter, and Victoria Ibáñez. “Recording colour in late eighteenth century botanical drawings: Sydney Parkinson, Ferdinand Bauer and Thaddäus Haenke.” Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, Volume 14, Issue 2 (May 1997): 87-100.

Lack, H. Walter, and David J. Mabberley. The Flora Graeca Story: Sibthrop, Bauer and Hawkins in the Levant. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Lambert, Aylmer Bourke. A Description of the Genus Pinus, Illustrated with Figures, Directions Relative to the Cultivation, and Remarks on the Uses of the Several Species. London: J. White, 1803.

  • Available via Internet Archive at:  http://archive.org/details/mobot31753003472476

Lhotsky, John. “Biographical Sketch of Ferdinand Bauer, Natural History Painter to the Expedition of Captain Flinders, R.N., to Terra Australis.” London Journal of Botany, Volume II: 106-113. London: Hippolyte Baillier, Publisher, 1843.

  • Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library at:  http://archive.org/details/cbarchive_40148_biographicalsketchofferdinandb1843

Mabberley, David. Ferdinand Bauer: The Nature of Discovery. London: Merrell Holberton Publishers and The Natural History Museum, 1999.

Mabberley, David J., and David T. Moore. "Catalogue of the holdings in the Natural History Museum (London) of the Australian botanical drawings of Ferdinand Bauer (1760-1826) and cognate materials relating to the Investigator voyage of 1801 - 1805." Bulletin of the Natural History Museum Botany Series, Volume 29, No. 2 (November 25, 1999):  81-226.

  • Available via Internet Archive at:  http://archive.org/details/bulletinofbritis292natu

Mabberley, David, and Pilar de San Pío Aladrén. La carta de colores de Haenke de la Expedición Malaspina: un enigma. Madrid : Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC : Ediciones Doce Callas, 2011.

Moran, Jennifer. "Ferdinand Bauer's Colourful Fish." The National Library Magazine, Volume 1 No. 3 (September 2009): 8-11.

  • Available at: http://www.nla.gov.au/pub/nlanews/2009/sep09/sept09.pdf

Nesbitt, Mark. "Woods of the World." Kew blogs > economic botany. October 30, 2012.

  • Available at:  http://www.kew.org/news/kew-blogs/economic-botany/Woods-of-the-world.htm

Norst, Marlene J. Ferdinand Bauer: The Australian Natural History Drawings. Art in Natural History No. 1. London: British Museum of Natural History, 1989.

Norst, Marlene J. and Johanna McBride. Austrians and Australia. Potts Point: Athena Press, 1988.

Organ, Michael. “The Discovery of the Koala: Hat Hill (Mount Kembla), New South Wales 1803.” March 9, 2006. Michael Organ – Home Page 2011. University of Wollongong.

  • Available at:  http://www.uow.edu.au/~morgan/koala.htm  (Last accessed June 16, 2011)

Quattrocchi, Umberto. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. Volume I: A-C. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000.

Soutteau, Pierre. “Curtis Gates Lloyd: The Kew Connection and the Acquisition of Flora Graeca.” Lloydiana, Volume 14 No. 1-2(Winter/Spring 2010): 10-12.

Thomas, Sarah. The Encounter 1802: Art of the Flinders and Baudin Voyages. Adelaide: Art Gallery of South Australia, 2002.

Ware, Grahame. "Franz Bauer and John Smith - The Eyes and Hands of William Hooker: The Significance of Their Work in Genera Filicum." Hardy Fern Foundation. March 2010.

  • Available at: http://www.hardyferns.org/webyep-system/program/download.php?FILENAME=23-2-at-download.pdf&ORG_FILENAME=7th_Version_Bauer_Smith_Eyes_Hands_ Hooker_ Genera_ Filicum.pdf.

Watts, Peter. et al. An Exquisite Eye: the Australian Flora and Fauna Drawings 1801-1820 of Ferdinand Bauer. Sydney:  Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, 1997.

Wrigley, John Walter. Eucalypt Flowers. Canberra: National Library of Australia, 2013.


Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, the Weedy Sea Dragon: Ferdinand Bauer's watercolor from Australia expedition 1801-1803
Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, the Weedy Sea Dragon: Ferdinand Bauer's watercolor from Australia expedition 1801-1803
the end which is also the beginning
the end which is also the beginning

Codex Liechtenstein contains priceless illustrations by Ferdinand Bauer and his brother Franz.

Included in its history is daring World War II rescue to transport Codex from Vienna's dangers to Vaduz Castle's safety.
Garden for Eternity: The Codex Liechtenstein
Masterful reproductions of faunal and floral illustrations by Ferdinand Bauer in the collection of London's Natural History Museum
Ferdinand Bauer: The Nature of Discovery (Natural History Museum)

Australia's Great Barrier Reef ~ black t-shirt

Among Australian fauna illustrated by Ferdinand Bauer was a Noisy Friarbird (Philemon corniculatus), shot on northern Barrier Reef in October 1802 during Flinders' Expedition.
Australia's Great Barrier Reef
Ad AllPosters
Ferdinand Bauer's exquisite, timeless illustrations are presented in this tribute to John Sibthorp's monumental expedition to mainland Greece and the Balkan Peninsula in 1786-1787.
The Flora Graeca Story: Sibthorp, Bauer, and Hawkins in the Levant
Careful reproductions of spectacular illustrations by Ferdinand Bauer from 1801-1803 voyage to Australia as member of Matthew Flinders' historic expedition.
Ferdinand Bauer: The Australian Natural History Drawings

Me and my purrfectly purrfect Maine coon kittycat, Augusta "Gusty" Sunshine

Gusty and I thank you for reading this article and hope that our product selection interests you; Gusty Gus receives favorite treats from my commissions.
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
DerdriuMarriner, All Rights Reserved
Updated: 11/16/2021, DerdriuMarriner
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DerdriuMarriner on 10/09/2013

JohnnyKnox, Ferdinand Bauer is one of my absolute favorite natural history illustrators. I hope that in his lifetime he received comments such as yours. Thank you for visiting and commenting.

JohnnyKnox on 10/08/2013

Wonderful work! Enjoyed the read and loved the artworks.

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