The next three Catherines were wives of Henry VIII—so you can tell from the beginning that they don’t have the best of lives or ends—and the first of those is Catherine of Aragon.
Catherine was originally the wife of Arthur Tudor but he died six months into their marriage. According to Catherine, it was never consummated but Henry VIII believed that it was, leading to the break from the Roman Catholic church. However, I’m jumping ahead. After the death of Arthur, Henry VII didn’t want to send his widowed daughter-in-law back to Spain; that would mean sending the dowry back, too. Instead, he sought a papal dispensation so Catherine could marry his second son, Henry. The dispensation was granted, making the marriage legal and valid in God’s eyes.
Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon married in 1509 after Henry VII’s death and the first few years they were happy together. There were a number of stillbirths and miscarriages though, along with one boy dying just a few weeks after his birth. The marriage brought one child who lived into adulthood, Mary Tudor. It was disappointing for Henry VIII who needed an heir.
This was long before he met Anne Boleyn, so she wasn’t the complete cause for the end of Henry and Catherine’s marriage; however, she did help Henry get the idea to break from Rome and create the Protestant church with him as Supreme Head.
It took seven years for Henry VIII to divorce Catherine. He did give her the choice of allowing an annulment to happen and she could live in a nunnery with the title Dowager Princess of Wales. However, Catherine refused. She was stubborn, believed the marriage was valid and wanted the best for her daughter, Mary. It led to poor treatment from Henry VIII.
Henry banned mother and daughter from seeing each other, even when they were both ill. Mary didn’t even get to say goodbye to her mother before Catherine’s death in 1536. Catherine was left living in poor conditions and it likely contributed to her death.